How To Download A Package In Rstudio?

How to load a package in R – different methods explained For downloading, you would simply use the install.packages (‘ ‘) command. Alternatively, you would go to the packages field in Rstudio, click install packages, choose the package and click install.
Installing Packages from CRAN

  1. Open RStudio.
  2. In the lower-right pane of RStudio, select the Packages tab and the Install button.
  3. Type the name of the packages to be installed in the “Packages (separate multiple packages with a space or comma):” box.
  4. Press Install.

Download SDSFoundations to your desktop (make sure it has the ‘.zip’ extension).

How to install a library in RStudio?

In RStudio, if you require a particular library, then you can go through the following instructions: 1 First, run RStudio. 2 After clicking on the packages tab, click on install. The following dialog box will appear. 3 In the Install Packages dialog, write the package name you want to install under the Packages field and then click More

How to install R package in R studio?

We can follow the instructions below to do so: Run R studio Click on the Packages tab in the bottom-right section and then click on install. The following dialog box will appear In the Install Packages dialog, write the package name you want to install under the Packages field and then click install.

How to install DBI in R studio?

Click on the Install button to start the package installation process. Once you click on the Install button, R studio will start installing the selected package and here it is DBI. As you can see in the console, it is stating that out package is installed successfully.

How do I download and install R on Ubuntu?

Install R The process of installing R depends on the type of your operating system. R can be installed in the following ways: Open the downloaded.pkg file and install R. For Ubuntu with Apt-get installed, execute sudo apt-get install r-base in terminal.

How do I manually Install a package in R?

Go into R, click on Packages (at the top of the R console), then click on ‘Install package(s) from local zip files’, then find the zip file with arm from wherever you just saved it. Do the same thing to install each of the other packages you want to install.

How do I download R packages locally?

To install a R package locally, specify the local directory where you want to install by using the “-l” option in the “R CMD INSTALL” command. For example, to install the R package in the local directory “/usr/me/localR/library”, use the “R CMD INSTALL” as follows.

How do I Install packages?

Find and install a package

  1. Open the project/solution in Visual Studio, and open the console using the Tools > NuGet Package Manager > Package Manager Console command.
  2. Find the package you want to install. If you already know this, skip to step 3. ps Copy.
  3. Run the install command: ps Copy.

How do I download R packages from github?

Installing R Packages from GitHub

  1. Step 1: Install the devtools package. To install a R package, start by installing the devtools package.
  2. Step 2: Install the package of interest from GitHub.
  3. Step 3: Load the package.

How do I download a new package in R?

Open R via your preferred method (icon on desktop, Start Menu, dock, etc.) Click “Packages” in the top menu then click “Install package(s)”. Choose a mirror that is closest to your geographical location. Now you get to choose which packages you want to install.

How do I Install Mass packages in R?

Thankfully, this function does the job:

  1. is_installed <- function(mypkg) is. element(mypkg, installed.
  2. library(MASS) library(MASS)
  3. library(‘MASS’,character. only=TRUE)
  4. install. packages(‘MASS’,repos=’’)
  5. load_or_install(c(‘foreach’,’MASS’,’doParallel’))

Which command is used to install packages R?

To install any package from CRAN, you use install. packages(). You only need to install packages the first time you use R (or after updating to a new version). **R Tip:** You can just type this into the command line of R to install each package.

How do I unload a package in R?

Just go to OUTPUT window, then click on Packages icon (it is located between Plot and Help icons). Remove ‘tick / check mark’ from the package you wanted be unload.

How do I install multiple packages in R?

You can install multiple packages by passing a vector of package names to the function, for example, install. packages(c(‘dplyr’, ‘stringr’)). That function will install the requested packages, along with any of their non-optional dependencies.

How do I get packages from GitHub?

You can search on to find packages in GitHub Packages that you can install in your own project. For more information, see ‘Searching GitHub Packages for packages.’ After you find a package, you can read the package’s description and installation and usage instructions on the package page.

Where are R packages stored?

R packages are installed in a directory called library. The R function. libPaths() can be used to get the path to the library.

How do I download R tools?

Go to, click on ‘Download R for Windows’, then ‘Rtools’, and select the very latest version of RTools to download. After downloading has completed run the installer.

How to install R, RStudio and your packages?

  • Tidyverse – Tidyverse is a collection of packages that work in harmony with each other to clean,process,model,and visualize data.
  • Installr – installr allows you to update R and all its packages with just a single command.
  • Rtweet – Twitter is the prime target for extracting tweets and building models to understand and predict sentiment.
  • How do I install are studio?

  • Step – 1: With the r-base installed,you need to install RStudio. To do that,go to download RStudio and click on the download button for the RStudio desktop.
  • Step – 2: Click on the link for the Mac OS X version of RStudio and save the.dmg file.
  • Step – 3: Double click the downloaded file and then drag-and-drop it into your applications folder.
  • How to install rtools in RStudio?

  • Description. Install compatible version of Rtools for Windows.
  • Usage
  • Arguments
  • Value
  • Details. Rtools is a collection of software for building packages for R under Microsoft Windows,or for building R itself (version 1.9.0 or later).
  • References
  • Examples
  • The best way to activate/load a package in R

    Recently, I received an email from a student with a query.She was perplexed as to how to load a package in the R language.Some of the scripts she had to work with had the library() command, while others she had to deal with required the library() command ().Let’s start at the very beginning of this discussion.

    1. You may be aware that there are a large number of additional packages available for download from R repository.
    2. Packaging is created by any interested contributor for practically any function imaginable.
    3. If anything has to do with data, there is a R package for it – whether it is a specific scientific subject, a social media research tool, or corporate data analysis – whatever it is about data, there is a R package for it.
    4. A number of packages, such as ggplot2 (graphs) and shine (web applications), have garnered tremendous popularity, while others are of poor quality or are particularly specialised.

    How to load a package in R – different methods explained

    You would simply use the install.packages(‘ ‘) command to get the necessary packages.An alternative method would be to open Rstudio and navigate to the packages section.From there, you would choose the package and click install packages.If you have the package installed on your computer, it is not yet ready to be used by anybody else.

    1. It is necessary to attach, load, and activate (to use synonyms) the package.
    2. There are a variety of approaches you might use to do this.
    1. You may use the command library() to accomplish this — this is the most popular method. It works just fine
    2. you just need to use the command need(), which is available here. However, if you are running lengthier and more intricate scripts with nested routines, the library function should be used. If the package is not installed on your computer, it may be more difficult to determine the source of the error. You click the required package in R-Studio – this is the safest method because you know that the package is available, you can see if it is activated, you can get a brief description, and you can also see the version of the package. You click the required package in R-Studio – this is the safest method because you know that the package is available, you This function can be thought of as a click-based library() command
    3. however, it is not.

    In R/Rstudio, there are a variety of approaches to achieving the desired output, just as there are in practically every other application.Normally, I would choose for the quickest and most straightforward solution, which in this instance is checking the appropriate boxes in the packages section.In the packages video of the free R Basics course, you will see an example of how to download and activate a package in Rstudio, which you can see here.To enlarge, click on the image.

    How to Install a Package in R?

    The R programming language does not come pre-loaded with all of its packages; instead, these must be installed manually. As a part of this post, we will look at How to Install a Package in the R programming language.

    Installing packages in Rstudio.

    Method 1: Making use of the application’s options 1. Launch the R studio. 2. Select the appropriate tools. 3. After selecting the tools, you must click on the Install Packages button. 4. You must enter the name of the package that you wish to install here. In this case, we utilized expm. The exponential of a square matrix is computed using this function.

    Installing packages in RGui:

    1.Launch RGui2.Select the packages you want to use.3.

    1. Select the packages to be installed.
    2. 4.
    3. Select the needed bundle and click on the ″OK″ button.
    4. The package will be downloaded and installed.

    The package ‘expm’ was successfully unpacked and the MD5 sums were verified.Method 2: Making use of a command Simply supply the package that needs to be installed as an argument to the install function in this case.The packages() method is used to package data.install.packages(″package name″) is a syntax for installing packages.Example:


    Loading a package

    It is possible to load a package after it has been installed by using the library() command. Syntax;library(“package name”) Example:

    Installing Packages from CRAN

    Packages provided through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) add new features to the R programming language.You may interact with R using RStudio, and the following instructions will walk you through the process of installing packages from within RStudio.If you have not opted to utilize RStudio, then follow these instructions for installing packages within R on either Windows or Mac OS X computers.

    1. Launch RStudio. Follow these steps to install RStudio for Windows or Mac if RStudio is not already installed on your computer.
    2. Select the Packages tab in the lower-right pane of RStudio and then the Install button.
    3. In the ″Packages (separate multiple packages with a space or comma):″ box, type the names of the packages that will be installed on your computer.
    4. Double-check that the ″Install dependencies″ checkbox is selected.
    5. In the following example, the dplyr, nnet, nlstools, and AICcmodavg packages are all installed successfully.
    6. Install should be selected.
    7. Now that these packages have been installed, RStudio should also install all of the packages that these depend on.
    8. This may take several minutes, during which time you should receive a number of ″package ‘xxx’ successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked″ notifications. It is possible that you will receive a warning at this point about a library that is ″not writable″ and then be presented with a dialog box asking ″Would you prefer to use a personal library instead?″ depending on your privileges on your system. On this dialog box, you have the option of selecting Yes. A second dialog box will appear, with the first question being ″Would you like to establish a personal library?″ A second dialog box will appear, with the first question being ″Would you like to build a personal library?″ On this dialog box, you have the option of selecting Yes.

    Installing FSA and FSAdata

    The FSA and FSAdata packages are available for download from CRAN and may be installed by following the steps outlined above.

    How To Install a R Package Locally and Load it Easily?

    The following topics are covered: R / How To Install a R Package Locally and Load It Easily?R has long been one of the most popular programming languages for dealing with big amounts of data.There are a plethora of handy programs available that allow you to get started with a wide range of statistical and computational techniques right away.Installing a R package is a simple process.

    1. R Packages are often available for download as a ″tar.gz″ file for Mac OS X from the CRAN repository.
    2. R CMD INSTALL -lmyRPackage.tar.gz is the command to run in order to distribute a R package to all users on your computer.

    Local Installation of R Packages

    Occasionally, you may wish to install a R package locally, either because you do not have root access to install a package globally, or because you just want to experiment with a new package before deploying it worldwide.Here’s how to install a R package via the command line on a local machine.When you use the ″R CMD INSTALL″ command, you may specify the local directory where you want the R package to be installed by using the ″-l″ option in the command.For example, to install the R package in the local directory ″/usr/me/localR/library,″ use the ″R CMD INSTALL″ command as follows to install the R package in the local directory ″/usr/me/localR/library.″ MyRPackage.tar.gz is installed using the R CMD INSTALL -l /usr/me/localR library myRPackage.tar.gz command.

    See also:  How To Cancel A Package On Amazon?

    How to Load a Locally Installed R Package and Use it?

    Installing R Packages in a local directory is merely the first step toward achieving this goal.There are a couple different approaches of loading and using the R packages that have been loaded locally.When loading the library, one alternative is to give the local path to the R package, which is described below.The library command in R is used to load a generic package (″RPackage″) Using the library command with the option lib.loc, you may load a R package that has been loaded locally.

    1. For example, library(″myRPackage″, lib.loc=″/usr/me/local/R/library″) will load a package that has been installed locally.
    2. Another method is to provide the path to the local R library in your.bashrc file, which may be found in your home directory.
    3. This option allows you to load the package without having to mention the local directory each time.
    4. if; then export R LIBS=/usr/me/local/R/library: If you want to activate this, add the following to your.bashrc: If you want to disable this, add the following to your.bashrc: if $R LIBS is not set, export R LIBS=/usr/me/local/R/library; otherwise fi Following the addition, you may use the R command ″.libPaths()″ to see whether the local R package directory is included in the R library path.

    In R, typing ″.libPaths()″ will display a list of all of the R library paths.You will only see one general route to R library if your local R library path has not been correctly added.For example, ″/opt/R/2.11.1/lib64/R/library″ will appear if your local R library path has not been properly added.

    Install and manage NuGet packages using the console in Visual Studio

    • Continue to the main content This browser is no longer supported by the manufacturer. You may benefit from the newest features, security updates, and technical support by switching to Microsoft Edge from Internet Explorer. Article published on January 25, 2021.
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    The information you provide will be forwarded to Microsoft: By clicking the submit button, your input will be used to improve Microsoft products and services in the future. Policy on personal information. Thank you very much.

    In this article

    The NuGet Package Manager Console enables you to utilize NuGet PowerShell commands to locate, install, remove, and update NuGet packages through the use of NuGet PowerShell commands.When the Package Manager UI does not give a mechanism to accomplish an action, it is required to use the console to complete the task.See Using the nuget.exe CLI in the console for further information on how to use nuget.exe CLI commands in the console.On Windows, the console is included as part of Visual Studio.

    1. There are no Visual Studio for Mac or Visual Studio Code editions that include this add-on.
    2. Important While the instructions provided in this section apply specifically to the Package Manager Console in Visual Studio, they differ from the Package Management module commands that are accessible in a more generic PowerShell context.
    3. Precise commands that are only accessible in one environment are not available in the other, and commands with the same name but different arguments may also differ in their specific parameters.
    4. It is necessary to use the Package Management Console in Visual Studio in order to make use of the commands and parameters mentioned in this article.

    Find and install a package

    In the case of packages, for example, identifying and installing them may be accomplished in three simple steps:

    1. Open the project/solution in Visual Studio and launch the Package Manager Console by selecting Tools > NuGet Package Manager > Package Manager Console from the menu bar.
    2. Locate the package that you wish to install. If you are already aware of this, you can go to step 3. Packages containing the term ″elmah″ will be found. Package elmah may be found by searching for it on the internet.
    3. Run the following installation command: Install the Elmah package to the project named MyProject by specifying the package name. Using the command Install-Package Elmah -ProjectName MyProject, you may create a new project.

    Important The NuGet CLI provides access to all of the same actions that are available via the NuGet console.Console commands, on the other hand, function inside the context of Visual Studio and a stored project/solution, and as a result, they frequently achieve more than their CLI equivalents.When a package is installed through the console, a reference to the project is added; however, this is not the case when the package is installed with the CLI command.As a result, developers working in Visual Studio often choose to use the console rather than the command line interface.

    1. Tip It is necessary to have an open solution in Visual Studio with an identifiable path name before doing many console tasks.
    2. If you have an unsaved solution, or if you have no solution, you will be able to identify the error ″The solution has not been opened or saved.
    3. Please confirm that you have a solution open and saved on your computer.″ This means that the console was unable to detect the location of the solution directory.
    4. Attempting to save an unfinished solution, or generating and saving a new solution if you don’t already have one open, should resolve the problem.

    Opening the console and console controls

    1. Using the Tools > NuGet Package Manager > Package Manager Console command in Visual Studio, you may access the package manager console. You may organize and position the console in any way you like in Visual Studio (see Customize window layouts in Visual Studio for more information).
    2. As a default, console commands work on a certain package source and project, which may be selected in the control at the top of the window:
    3. Selecting a different package source and/or project from the drop-down menu affects the settings for the commands that follow. Most commands provide the -Source and -ProjectName arguments, which allow you to override these parameters without affecting the defaults.
    4. Selecting the gear icon will allow you to manage package sources. Using this shortcut, you may quickly access the Tools > Options > NuGet Package Manager > Package Sources dialog box, which is detailed in further detail on the Package Manager UI page. Additionally, the control to the right of the project selector clears the contents of the console:
    5. The rightmost button terminates a command that has been running for a long time. As an example, the command Get-Package -ListAvailable -PageSize 500 shows the top 500 packages available on the default source (such as, which may take several minutes to complete.

    Install a package

    • Add the Elmah package to the default project, which can be found in the project selection on the console’s main screen. Install-Package Elmah Add the Elmah package to a project named UtilitiesLib that is not the default project for the Elmah package. Install-Package UtilitiesLib is a project named Elmah. See Install-Package for further information. It is possible to install packages through the console, which follows the same procedure as that described in the section What occurs when a package is installed, with the following additions: The Console shows the licensing conditions that apply in its window, with the user’s implicit agreement. If you do not agree with the conditions of the agreement, you should remove the item as soon as possible.
    • Also, a reference to the package is added to the project file and shows in Solution Explorer under the References node
    • however, you must save the project in order to view the changes in the project file immediately
    • additionally,

    Uninstall a package

    • Removes the Elmah package from the current project’s default configuration. Uninstall-Package Elmah This command uninstalls the Elmah package and all of its dependencies that are no longer needed. Uninstall-Package Elmah -RemoveDependencies is a command line option. Uninstalls the Elmah package, regardless of whether or not another package is dependent on it. Package Elmah must be uninstalled using the force option. See Uninstall-Package for further information. If you need to locate an identifier for a package, you may use Get-Package to examine all of the packages that are presently installed in the default project. When you uninstall a software, the following activities are carried out: Deletes any references to the package from the project’s source code (and whatever management format is in use). References are no longer displayed in the Solution Explorer window. (It is possible that you may need to rebuild the project in order to see it removed from the Bin folder.)
    • Reverses any modifications that were made to app.config or web.config during the installation of the package.
    • Once previously installed dependencies have been removed, the package that relied on them is no longer required by any other packages.

    Update a package

    Checks to see if there are any newer versions of any installed packages that are available.Get-Package -updates is a cmdlet that retrieves the most recent version of a package.Updates a specified package by referencing its identifier, in this example jQuery Update-Package, and performing the update.In the project named MyProject, jQuery is used to update all of the packages (as it appears in Solution Explorer) All packages in the solution will be updated using the Update-Package -ProjectName MyProject cmdlet.

    1. Update-Package See Get-Package and Update-Package for further information.

    Find a package

    Find packages that include the keywords you’re looking for.Find-Package elmah is a search engine that helps you find packages.logging of the Find-Package command List all of the parcels whose ID begins with the letter Elmah.Finding the package Elmah and starting with it is a simple task.

    1. Get-Package produces a list of 20 packages by default; use the -First parameter to display more.
    2. Find-Package logging – First 100 packages found List all of the versions of the package that has the ID ″jquery″ in it.
    3. Exact match for the package jquery using the Find-Package jquery command.
    4. See Find-Package for further information.

    Use Get-Package instead of Get-Package with Visual Studio 2013 and older versions.

    Availability of the console

    Starting with Visual Studio 2017, NuGet and the NuGet Package Manager are automatically installed when you select any.NET-related workloads; however, you can also install it separately by selecting Individual components > Code tools > NuGet package manager from the Visual Studio installer’s Advanced options.You may also check Tools > Extensions and Updates and look for the NuGet Package Manager extension if you are using Visual Studio 2015 or earlier and are missing the NuGet Package Manager functionality.It is possible to download the extension straight from the Visual Studio extensions installer if you are unable to use it in Visual Studio.The Package Manager Console is not currently accessible with Visual Studio for Mac, which is a shame.

    1. The NuGet CLI, on the other hand, provides access to the corresponding commands.
    2. Visual Studio for Mac does have a graphical user interface (GUI) for managing NuGet packages.
    3. See Including a NuGet package in your project is a simple process.
    4. Visual Studio Code does not contain the Package Manager Console, which can be found here.

    Extend the Package Manager Console

    Some packages provide additional commands to the console, which might be useful. The command Scaffold displayed below, for example, is generated by MvcScaffolding and it generates the following ASP.NET MVC controllers and views:

    Set up a NuGet PowerShell profile

    A PowerShell profile enables you to make often used commands available from whatever PowerShell session you are currently running.NuGet provides support for a NuGet-specific profile, which is typically found at the following URL: userprofile percent DocumentsWindowsPowerShellNuGet profile.ps1 percent DocumentsWindowsPowerShellNuGet profile.ps1 In order to locate the profile, enter $profile in the console: $profile C:UsersDocuments $profile WindowsPowerShell\NuGet profile.ps1 To learn more about Windows PowerShell Profiles, see this article.

    Use the nuget.exe CLI in the console

    Install the NuGet.CommandLine package from the Package Manager Console in order to make the nuget.exe CLI available in the Package Manager Console: Further information can be found at:Install-Package NuGet.CommandLine -Version 4.4.1 (other versions are also available).


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    Installing R Packages from GitHub

    GitHub is frequently the only place where fresh and interesting R packages can be found. This post demonstrates how to install a R package from GitHub in three different R environments: R, R Studio, and Displayr. As an illustration, this post shows how to install the flipPlots package, which allows you to build Sankey diagrams (click here for some example code).

    Installing GitHub packages into R

    Step 1: Install the devtools package

    Installing a R package begins with the devtools package, which is necessary for the rest of the process. The easiest method to accomplish this is through CRAN, where you may type: install.packages to get started (″devtools″)

    Step 2: Install the package of interest from GitHub

    Install the package of interest from GitHub using the following code, where you must remember to provide both the author and the name of the package (in GitHub lingo, the package is referred to as the repo, which is short for repository) in the author and package fields.This example shows how to install the flipPlots package produced by Displayr.library(devtools) install github(″Displayr/flipPlots″) library(devtools) install github(″Displayr/flipPlots″)

    Step 3: Load the package


    Installing GitHub packages into RStudio

    Although RStudio has a number of tools for installing packages, the most easy method is to follow the procedures indicated in the preceding section, putting the code into the Console in RStudio as stated in the previous section.

    Installing GitHub packages into Displayr

    Many GitHub packages, such as flipPlots, are already installed in Displayr, saving you the time and effort of installing them yourself. If you want assistance with the installation of any additional programs, please contact [email protected] Are you prepared to install your preferred GitHub package using Displayr? Become a member of Displayr

    See also:  How To Write An Address On A Package?

    How to install packages on R + screenshots

    (You may report a problem with the content on this page by clicking here.) You’d want to post your stuff on R-bloggers, right? If you have a blog, go to this page; if you don’t, go to this page. Do not be alarmed, the screenshots are available! (To view the original instruction, please visit this page.)

    Part 1-Getting the Package onto Your Computer

    1. Choose your preferred method of launching R (desktop icon, Start Menu entry in the dock, etc.)
    2. Packages can be installed by selecting ″Install package(s)″ from the top menu.
    3. Choose a mirror that is the most convenient for you in terms of location
    4. You now have the option of selecting the packages you want to install. Installing numerous packages is as simple as clicking on each one while holding down the CTRL key (or the cloverleaf-looking key) on your keyboard. For the time being, simply highlight ″ggplot2′′.
    5. Another greater-than symbol (″>″) will appear on your computer screen to indicate that the package has been downloaded to your computer.

    Part 2-Loading the Package into R

    1. Type “library(ggplot2)” and then click the Enter/Return key
    2. you’re finished
    3. thank you.

    Type “library(ggplot2)” the Enter/Return key; that’s it; you’re finished.

    Part 1-Getting the Package onto Your Computer

    1. Type “install.packages(“gplots”)” and then press the Enter/Return key to complete the sentence
    2. If you have previously loaded a package from a server into your R session, R will install the package for you without your intervention. If you do not, R will ask you to select a mirror on its own initiative. Again, find one that is close by unless you want to sit and watch a loading bar slowly inch its way towards completion.

    Part 2-Loading the Package into R

    1. Type ″library(gplots)″ into the search box and hit the Enter/Return key
    2. Everything has been completed.
    3. Because it needs to install additional packages necessary by gplots, R will generate a significant amount of additional output.

    Once again, you will only need to complete Part 1 on your computer a single time. From now on, you will only need to complete Part 2 each time you close and reopen the R program.

    Loading and/or Installing Packages Programmatically

    (You may report a problem with the content on this page by clicking here.) You’d want to post your stuff on R-bloggers, right?If you have a blog, go to this page; if you don’t, go to this page.The typical technique of loading packages in R can occasionally result in circumstances where multiple lines of code are required merely to load a single package, which is not ideal.These lines might create issues if the packages are not installed, and they can also be difficult to manage, which is especially true throughout the deployment process.

    1. The good news is that there is a technique to develop a function in R that will load our packages for us automatically.
    2. In this post, I’ll guide you through the process of conceptualizing and developing such a function.
    3. It is necessary to verify whether a package is already installed before writing a function that checks whether the package has already been loaded or installed, and then installs the package if it has not already been installed.
    4. Fortunately, this method accomplishes the task: If mypkg has been installed, then function(mypkg) is.element(mypkg, installed.packages()) will return true.

    The above code was derived from a message on the R mailing list, however I am not sure whether it is the source of the function.This method will check to see if a specific function name exists in the list of installed packages by using a string argument.We can get the list directly by using installed.packages(), and we can use the function by attempting is installed().We can also access the list indirectly by using installed.packages() (″foreach″).As soon as we understand how to determine if a package has been installed or not, we can go on to coding the function.At the present, we are confronted with two obstacles.

    • A character vector of names is used to load a package, and the first problem is how to do it.
    • The second topic is how to install a package using a programming language.
    • Typically, the process of loading a package will look somewhat like this: library(MASS) As a fortunate side effect, the library function has a character.only option that allows us to specify the package name as a string.

    library(″MASS″,character.only=TRUE) The code above provides us with the capability we want in order to send the name of a package to a function as a string and have the package loaded into memory.Now we must figure out how to install packages, which may be accomplished through the use of the install.packages function: install.packages(″MASS″,repos=″ R will not ask us for the repository if we explicitly set it when the function is performed for the first time, as it would otherwise.I used statlib for the sake of simplicity, but you are free to use any other repository you choose.In this version, we have a method for testing if a package is installed, a method for installing the package, and a method for loading the package.

    1. All we have to do now is put it all together using an if statement.
    2. if(!is installed(package name)) install.packages(package name,repos=) if(!is installed(package name)) if(!is installed(package name)) ″package name, character.only=TRUE, quietly=TRUE, verbose=FALSE, library(package name, character.only=TRUE, quietly=TRUE, verbose=FALSE) The if statement above will check to see if a package has already been installed, and if it hasn’t, it will install it.
    3. After that, it will begin loading the package.
    4. However, if we want to send a character vector to the function and have it load numerous packages at the same time, we’ll need to wrap everything in a for loop.
    5. This will get us most of the way there.
    1. the function for(package name in package names) is equivalent to if(!is installed(package name)) and install.packages(package name,repos=) respectively ″library(package name,character.only=TRUE,quietly=TRUE,verbose=FALSE) library(package name,character.only=TRUE,quietly=TRUE,verbose=FALSE) This for loop will carry out the actions on the character vector package names that we need to complete our task.
    2. As a result, we can simply wrap everything into a single function that is run when a character vector named package names.load or install-function(package names) is supplied as an argument.
    3. for(package name in package names) if(!is installed(package name)) if(!is installed(package name)) install.packages(package name,repos=) is a function that installs packages ″lib(package name,character.only=TRUE,quietly=TRUE,verbose=FALSE) lib(package name,character.only=TRUE,quietly=TRUE,verbose=FALSE) We may invoke the function using the following syntax (in which the function names are substituted with your own): load or install(c(″foreach″,″MASS″,″doParallel″)) As a result, we have a method that can load or install packages as needed from a character vector, and we have completed our task.
    • If the install.packages function or the library function fails to locate the supplied package name, this code will end with an error; however, you may correct this by using a try statement, which is an exercise that I will leave to you for the time being.

    Installing & Updating Packages in R

    This tutorial will teach you the fundamentals of installing and using packages in the R programming language.

    Learning Objectives

    • After finishing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the fundamentals of a R package
    • Describe the fundamentals of a R package
    • and Describe the fundamentals of a R package.
    • Installing a package in R is simple.
    • Call (make use of) a R package that has been installed
    • In R, you may make changes to a package.
    • Examine the packages that have been installed on your computer

    Things You’ll Need To Complete This Tutorial

    This course will require the most recent version of R and, preferably, RStudio to be installed on your computer in order to be completed.Assume that you have already configured your working directory to the location of the downloaded and unzipped data subsets before beginning this session.The following page provides an overview of how to set the working directory in R.R Script & Challenge Code: R Script and Challenge Code: NEON data lessons sometimes include challenges that serve to reinforce previously taught abilities.

    1. If available, the code for problem answers can be found in the downloadable R script of the full lesson, which can be located at the bottom of each lesson page in the footer of the page.

    Additional Resources

    • More information about Quick-bundles
    • R’s
    • On R-bloggers, there is an article about installing packages in R

    About Packages in R

    The R package is a collection of R functions, data, and executable code that is organized in a predefined manner.A package offers you access to a collection of commands that are not accessible in the standard R set of functions when you install it.The library is the directory in which packages are kept and is located in the package installation directory.R comes with a standard set of packages that are easy to use.

    1. Others are accessible for download and installation on a computer or device.
    2. Once they have been installed, they must be loaded into the session in order to be utilized.

    Installing Packages in R

    In order to install a package, you must first determine where you may obtain the package.The majority of well-known packages are accessible via ″CRAN,″ which stands for the Comprehensive R Archive Network.Packages are downloaded from specified CRAN ″mirrors,″″ which are locations where the packages have been kept (assuming that a binary, or set of installation files, is available for your operating system).The options() window will appear if you haven’t specified a preferred CRAN mirror in your configuration.

    1. A menu will appear asking you to select a location from which you’d want to install your packages.
    2. Installing a package from CRAN is accomplished through the use of the install.packages command ().
    3. You only need to install packages the first time you use R.
    4. After that, you are done (or after updating to a new version).

    Install the ggplot2 package on your system.install.packages(″ggplot2″) **R’s Insider Tip:** To install any package, you may simply put the following into the command line of R.Once a package has been installed, it is not necessary to reinstall it while using the current version of R!

    Use a Package

    Using R, you need to ″call″ a package into the current session of the program once it has been installed (essentially, the functions have been downloaded into your computer).In essence, this is the equivalent of saying, ″Hey R, I’m going to be utilizing these functions right now, please get them ready.″ This is something that needs to be done every time you start a new R session, so it should be towards the beginning of the script.When you wish to call a package, you should use the library keyword (PackageNameHere).You may also see some individuals using require() – while this works in most circumstances, it does operate in a slightly different manner, and it is recommended that you use library rather than require() ().

    1. the package library must be loaded (ggplot2)

    What Packages are Installed Now?

    If you wish to utilize a package but aren’t sure whether or not you’ve already installed it, you may do a check!Installed can be used in code, if desired.packages().Installed packages should be checked for.

    1. packages() If you are working with RStudio, you should also have a look at the Packages page.
    2. A check mark will appear next to any currently loaded and ready-to-use packages in the list of those that are currently installed and ready to use.
    3. This page also allows you to do package updates and installations.
    4. In addition to calling a package from here by ticking the box, I would not advocate doing so because contacting a package is not part of your script, and if you execute the script again, this might cause confusion.

    Updating Packages

    Packages are occasionally updated by the users who originally produced them.When updating packages, it is possible that changes will be made to both the package and the way your code executes.** If you have a large amount of code that relies on a package, you should exercise caution while upgrading packages since some functionality may alter or disappear.Alternately, go ahead and update outdated packages to ensure that everything is up to date.

    1. You may use the old.packages() function in your code to determine whether packages are out of date.
    2. The function update.packages() will do an interactive update of all packages in the known libraries.
    3. If you haven’t done this in a while, it may take a little longer!
    4. Use the ask = FALSE parameter to force everything to be updated without the need for user participation.

    Using install.packages() once more is the best technique to update a single package if you just want to make a single change to it.list all packages for which an update is available old.packages() update all packages that are currently available update.packages() does an update without prompting the user for permission or clarification.update.packages(ask = FALSE) is a method that updates packages.just a single package has to be updated install.packages() should be used instead of install.packages() (″plotly″) In RStudio, you may manage packages by selecting Tools -> Install Packages from the menu bar.

    Challenge: Installing Packages

    Check to see whether you can install the dplyr package or another package that you are interested in using the command line.

    1. If you haven’t already, check to see if the dplyr package is already installed on your machine.
    2. It is necessary to install the ″dplyr″ package in R if it is not already there.
    3. Is the software installed and up to date?

    How to unload a package without restarting R

    However many times you try to uninstall a package (and all of the dependencies it brought in with it) by using unloadNamespace(), the memory footprint will remain.In addition to this, detach(″package:,packageName″, unload=TRUE, force=TRUE) will not function either.With the pryr package, you may verify RAM with a fresh new console or by selecting Session > Restart R from the main menu: pryr:mem used() consumes 40.6 MB of memory.This will, of course, be dependent on whatever packages are loaded (can also fluctuate a bit after the decimal) Verify that my sessionInfo() R version 3.6.1 is correct (2019-07-05) Platform: x86 64-w64-mingw32/x64 x86 64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit) Running on: Windows 10 x64 (64-bit) (build 17763) Product matrix default locales are as follows: LC COLLATE=English Canada.1252LC CTYPE=English Canada.1252LC MONETARY=English Canada.1252 LC NUMERIC=C LC TIME=English Canada.1252 attached base packages are as follows: LC COLLATE=English Canada.1252 attached base packages are as follows: statsgraphicsgrDevices utilsdatasetsmethodsbase statsgraphicsgrDevices utilsdatasetsmethodsbase loaded from a namespace (rather than being attached): stringi 1.4.3codetools 0.2-16 stringr 1.4.0 packrat 0.5.0 compiler 3.6.1pryr 0.1.4magrittr 1.5tools 3.6.1Rcpp 1.0.3stringi 1.4.3codetools 0.2-16 stringr 1.4.0 packrat 0.5.0 Let’s try to load the Seurat package and see what the new memory footprint looks like.

    1. library(Seurat) pryr:mem used() used 172 MB of memory.
    2. It’s possible that things will alter in the future, but this is simply to give you an idea.
    3. To erase everything, let’s utilize the unloadNamespace() function: unloadNamespace(″Seurat″) unloadNamespace(″ape″) unloadNamespace(″cluster″) unloadNamespace(″cowplot″) unloadNamespace(″ROCR″) unloadNamespace(″gplots″) unloadNamespace(″caTools″) unloadNamespace(″bitops″) unloadNamespace(″fitdistrplus″) unloadNamespace(″RColorBrewer″) unloadNamespace(″RColorBrewer″) unloadNamespace (″sctransform″) unloadNamespace(″future.apply″) unloadNamespace(″future.apply″) unloadNamespace(″future.apply″) (″future″) unloadNamespace(″plotly″) unloadNamespace(″ggrepel″) unloadNamespace(″ggridges″) unloadNamespace(″ggplot2″) unloadNamespace(″gridExtra″) unloadNamespace(″gtable″) unloadNamespace(″uwot″) unloadNamespace(″irlba″) unloadNamespace(″leiden″) unloadNamespace(″reticulate″) unloadNamespace(″rsvd″) unloadNamespace(″survival″) unloadNamespace(″Matrix″) unloadNamespace(″nlme″) unloadNamespace(″lmtest″) unloadNamespace(″zoo″) unloadNamespace(″metap″) unloadNamespace(″metap″) unloadNamespace(″metap″) (″lattice″) unloadNamespace(″grid″) unloadNamespace(″httr″) unloadNamespace(″ica″) unloadNamespace(″igraph″) unloadNamespace(″irlba″) unloadNamespace(″KernSmooth″) unloadNamespace(″irlba″) unloadNamespace(″KernSmooth″) unloadNamespace(″KernSmooth″) (″leiden″) unloadNamespace(″MASS″) unloadNamespace(″pbapply″) unloadNamespace(″plotly″) unloadNamespace(″png″) unloadNamespace(″RANN″) unloadNamespace(″RcppAnnoy″) unloadNamespace(″tidyr″) unloadNamespace(″dplyr″) unloadNamespace(″tibble″) unloadNamespace(″RANN″) unloadNamespace(″tidyselect″) unloadNamespace(″purrr″) unloadNamespace(″htmlwidgets″) unloadNamespace(″htmltools″) unloadNamespace(″lifecycle″) unloadNamespace(″pillar″) unloadNamespace(″vctrs″) unloadNamespace(″rlang″) unloadNamespace(″Rtsne″) unloadNamespace(″SDMTools″) unloadNamespace(″Rdpack″) unloadNamespace(″bibtex″) unloadNamespace(″tsne″) unloadNamespace(″backports″) unloadNamespace(″R6″) unloadNamespace(″lazyeval″) unloadNamespace(″scales″) unloadNamespace(″munsell″) unloadNamespace(″colorspace″) unloadNamespace(″npsurv″) unloadNamespace(″compiler″) unloadNamespace(″digest″) unloadNamespace(″R.utils″) unloadNamespace(″pkgconfig″) unloadNamespace(″pkgconfig″) unloadNamespace (″gbRd″) unloadNamespace(″parallel″) unloadNamespace(″gdata″) unloadNamespace(″listenv″) unloadNamespace(″crayon″) unloadNamespace(″splines″) unloadNamespace(″zeallot″) unloadNamespace(″reshape″) unloadNamespace(″glue″) unloadNamespace(″lsei″) unloadNamespace(″RcppParallel″) unloadNamespace(″data.table″) unloadNamespace(″viridisLite″) unloadNamespace(″globals″) Check sessionInfo() once more: Version 3.6.1 of the R programming language (2019-07-05) Platform: x86 64-w64-mingw32/x64 x86 64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit) Running on: Windows 10 x64 (64-bit) (build 17763) Matrix goods are available in the following locales: English Canada.1252LC COLLATE=English Canada.1252LC CTYPE=English Canada.1252LC MONETARY=English Canada.1252 LC NUMERIC=C LC TIME=English Canada.1252 attached base packages: LC COLLATE=English Canada.1252 attached base packages: statsgraphicsgr A namespace was used to load the following devices (which were not attached): utilsdatasetsmethodsbase stringi 1.4.3plyr 1.8.4reshape2 1.4.3codetools 0.2-16 packrat 0.5.0assertthat 0.2.1 tools 3.6.1stringr 1.4.0rstudioapi 0.10pryr 0.1.4jsonlite 1.6 gtools 3.8.1R.oo 1.22.0 magrittr 1.5Rcpp 1.0.3R.methodsS3 1.7.1 stringi 1.4.3plyr 1.8.4re Check the memory footprint by running the following command: pryr:mem used() used 173 MB of memory.
    4. Demonstration via screencast is available here.
    See also:  How Do I Talk To Someone At The Post Office?

    What is CRAN?

    R is extremely well supported on all three major operating systems: Linux, MacOS, and Windows.Both R the programming language and the dozens of published packages that enhance its capability are compatible with all three systems, for the most part.Furthermore, installing packages in R may be far simpler than installing packages in other programming languages.The CRAN infrastructure is responsible for a large part of the simplicity with which R and its add-on packages may be installed.

    1. CRAN, the ″Comprehensive R Archive Network,″ hosts R and the packages that have been made accessible to the public.
    2. The CRAN maintainers thoroughly filter new packages before accepting them and testing them on a continuous basis.
    3. This does not imply that there are no flaws in the R packages that have been released, but it does imply that the quality of the software that has been published on CRAN is typically rather good.
    4. CRAN is a collection of mirrors, which are servers that have the same same material as the original server.

    However, you may also access a CRAN mirror at Indiana University, for example, at R Project has an up-to-date list of mirrors on its website.The first time you install packages at the beginning of an RSession, R will prompt you for the mirror you wish to utilize.Selecting the first option, ″Cloud,″ should be your initial choice unless you have a good cause to choose a different one: It will select a server that is geographically close to you if you choose this option.

    Installing R on MacOS

    CRAN is a tool for compiling R on the Mac.To download and install R for Mac, navigate to CRAN and click on the link that says ″Download R for Mac.″ Download the R installer for the most recent version of the R programming language, for example, R-3.6.2.pkg.Installing this package is similar to installing any other Mac program.The installer will install R as well as a variety of additional applications, such as a graphical user interface (GUI) program for R.

    1. You may verify that R is correctly installed on your Mac by using the Terminal application and entering the following command.
    2. R -version is a version of the R language.
    3. If you see a notice that prints the current version of R, this indicates that you have successfully completed the installation of R.
    4. In general, unless you have a compelling reason to do otherwise, you should use the version of R that CRAN has developed for the Mac OS X platform.

    One of the most significant features of this version is the ability to install R extension packages that have been pre-compiled by CRAN for the Macintosh operating system.Installing R packages may be made substantially easier as a result of this.

    Installing R on a Mac via Homebrew

    You may, however, install R using the Homebrew package manager.Mac users may install and update applications using Homebrew, which is a package manager that can be used from the command line.Choosing this method of installing R may be preferable in some cases, such as if you want to compile your own R packages or if Homebrew is being used to install all of the other software in your development environment.To begin, go to the Homebrew website and follow the installation instructions.

    1. Then enter the following command into your terminal window.
    2. This will very certainly include the installation of a large amount of extra software, such as compilers.
    3. R is installed via brew.
    4. Once you’ve decided to go down the path of building your own software, you’ll need to install a number of system libraries in order to compile particular R packages, which you can find on the R package page.

    Consider the following example: if you require the R package xml2, you will also require the libxml2 library.Generally speaking, the documentation for the individual packages will describe the system libraries they may require and how to install them if such libraries are required.

    Installing R on Windows

    The CRAN repository hosts a version of R for Windows, as well as useful advice on how to install the package.Follow the instructions on the CRAN download page for Windows to complete the installation.Installing binary (i.e., precompiled) versions of R extension packages will be possible with the version of R that you get from CRAN for Windows and install from there.This is far less difficult than attempting to assemble those packages on your own.

    1. CRAN, on the other hand, maintains a collection of Rtools for Windows, which offer the software that you will need to assemble packages on your own computer.
    2. If you want to create packages from source code, you must first install the version of Rtools that corresponds to the version of R that you are now running.

    Installing R on Ubuntu

    The ability to install R on a Linux machine is advantageous in a variety of ways.Of course, if your primary computer is running a Linux distribution, you may use R on it in the same way that you would on a Mac or a PC running Windows.Although not recommended, you can install and execute R on a Linux server, or on a Linux virtual machine that is hosted on a different operating system than that of the server.Installing R on either the server or desktop versions of Ubuntu 18.04.x, the most recent long-term support (LTS) version of a major Linux distribution, is described in detail in the following procedures.

    1. 23 Generally speaking, software on Ubuntu is installed using the apt package manager.
    2. In the Ubuntu repository, there is a version of R that is almost probably not the most recent version, especially in the case of long-term support versions of Ubuntu.
    3. As a result, it is recommended that you first add a CRAN-maintained Ubuntu repository to the list of software sources that apt checks before installing R.
    4. To begin, enter this command (as well as any subsequent commands) into the Ubuntu terminal.

    This command obtains the security key required for software verification.apt-key adv -keyserver sudo apt-key adv The command -recv-keys should be used.E298A3A825C0D65DFD57CBB651716619E084DAB9 Then add the Ubuntu repository that is managed by CRAN.add-apt-repository ‘debxenial/’ sudo add-apt-repository ‘debxenial/’ Finally, R should be installed.The R programming language is installed as well as the Ubuntu packages that you require in order to be able to generate R extension packages for yourself using the instructions above.sudo apt update (update the package manager) r-base can be installed with sudo apt install r-base r-base-dev In order to ensure that you have successfully installed R, you should be able to perform the following command and obtain the right version of R.

    • R -version is a version of the R language.
    • Many R packages will require development packages from mainstream Ubuntu distributions before they can be installed.
    • Installing these will ensure that your system is configured with the appropriate libraries for commonly used R packages.

    sudo apt install build-essential libcurl4-openssl-dev libssl-dev libxml2-dev sudo apt install build-essential

    About R packages and libraries

    CRAN has a large number of R packages.These packages enhance the capabilities of R by introducing new functions into the language.In addition, R packages can include data files, which is a convenient method to provide example datasets or data for learning that is not too enormous in size.24 Packages are the names given to these R extensions.

    1. Depending on the programming language, they may be referred to as libraries.
    2. In R, on the other hand, the term library refers to the folders in which R packages are installed.
    3. We must remember that R may load packages from many libraries at the same time, which is really convenient.
    4. With the function, you may find out which libraries are available to your R session.

    It is possible to use libPaths() to find the path to a R library in a variety of locations.For example, you might find the path to a R library in a directory named ″/Users/lmullen/R-library.″ The second library in the list of folders is the library that is included with the R programming language.It comprises packages like as the stats and utils packages, which give fundamental functionality to the R programming language.This library is stored in a system directory and is accessible to any R user that is logged into the system.The first library on the list is a personal package library, which is the second library on the list.It is stored in the user’s home directory, in this example the user lmullen’s home directory.

    • This library includes packages that have been installed by the user, and they are only available by the user who has installed them.
    • In order to load a package with the library() or need() methods, those functions seek for a package in the first directory returned by the function.
    • libPaths() is called first, followed by the second and so on until the first match is found.

    This ensures that the versions of packages that you install are loaded first, before system libraries, and that system libraries are loaded last.It is likely that while installing packages for the first time, you will be requested to build a personal package library in order to save your work.25

    Installing packages from CRAN

    The install.packages() method may be used to install any package that is available on CRAN.install.packages(″tokenizers″) Multiple packages can be installed at the same time by giving a vector of package names to the install.packages(c(″dplyr″) and install.packages(c(″stringr″) functions.That function will install the given packages, as well as any non-optional dependencies that are required by those packages.Unless you have specified otherwise, the packages will be installed in a personal package library located someplace in your home directory unless you have specified otherwise.

    1. Once you’ve installed the packages, you can use the update.packages() command to see whether there are any updates available.
    2. Checking for newer versions of the packages you have previously installed on CRAN may ask you to install any that have been updated as a result of this operation.
    3. Install.packages() will install a binary version of packages if one is available if you are using a R version that supports it (for example, Windows and the CRAN built R for various MacOS versions).
    4. 26 When packages are installed from source, R provides a version of the package that can be installed and used straight away without any additional steps.

    In many cases, the code for R packages is written in a lower-level language, like as C++.When such packages are installed from source, they must be compiled into a binary before being used.Install.packages() will attempt to install a pre-compiled binary from R if this is feasible.Installation of packages is handled by the install.packages() function.If you do not have a binary version of a package for your version of R, the function will build the package for you.This will need the installation of a compiler as well as any necessary system libraries.

    • If you follow the instructions on how to install R above, you will be able to obtain the necessary dependencies for your operating system.
    • It is possible that certain packages will require you to install system libraries.
    • For example, the sf package, which is used for geospatial analysis, requires the GDAL/OGR libraries to function properly.

    These may be installed on a Mac using the Homebrew package manager, and on an Ubuntu system using the apt package manager.The package will not be able to compile unt

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