Answer: Weighing scale could be used to weigh a package to be mailed.

The tool that could be used to measure the mass of a package being mailed is called a balance. Score 1 Log in for more information.

## Which tool could be used to measure?

These are the most commonly used tools for measurement: Rulers. Tape measures. Yard sticks.

## What took is used to measure mass?

A scale or balance is a device to measure weight or mass. These are also known as mass scales, weight scales, mass balances, and weight balances.

## Can mass be measured in newtons?

Mass is an intrinsic property of matter and is measured in kilograms. The mass of a bird is a constant. A 15-gram bird is 15 grams, whether measured on the Earth, the Moon, or Mars. Weight is a measure ofthe force of gravity on a physical object and is measured in newtons.

## What are the 3 types of measurement?

The three standard systems of measurements are the International System of Units (SI) units, the British Imperial System, and the US Customary System. Of these, the International System of Units(SI) units are prominently used.

## What are 3 tools that measure mass?

Tools Used to Measure Mass

## How do you find the mass of something?

The mass of an object can be calculated in a number of different ways: mass=density×volume (m=ρV). Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume, so the mass of an object can be determined by multiplying density by volume. mass=force÷acceleration (m=F/a).

## Can you measure mass directly?

Direct weighing means that an object is placed directly on a balance and the mass read. Weighing directly requires that the balance be carefully zeroed (reads zero with nothing on the balance pan) in order to obtain accurate results. A clean piece of weighing paper is placed on the balance and weighed.

## How do you measure mass and weight?

Mass and weight are related by the equation Weight = mass x gravity. You might know this equation as Newton’s II Law of Motion Force = mass x acceleration (F = ma) where Force (or weight) is measure in Newtons, N, and the mass is measured in kilograms, kg.

## What are the methods of measurement?

There are two methods for performing dimensional measurements: direct measurement and indirect measurement. With direct measurements, measuring instruments such as Vernier calipers, micrometers, and coordinate measuring machines are used to measure the dimensions of the target directly.

## What are the 5 types of measurement?

Types of data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

## What are types of measurement?

You can see there are four different types of measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio). Each of the four scales, respectively, typically provides more information about the variables being measured than those preceding it.

## Which tool could be used to measure the mass of a package being mailed? A. a balance B. a ruler C. a marked beaker D. a graduated cylinder

Identify the fifteen (15) assertions that are correct out of the twenty-five (25) statements listed below.3/9/2022 3.43.09 PM (CST) |25 Responses Is attorney the right plural form of the word attorney?The first and most important.

I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.10th of March, 2022, 6:38:01 p.m.|12 Responses Is attorney the right plural form of the word attorney?

The first and most important.I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.10:57:30 p.m.on March 9, 2022 |12 Responses In the noun attorney, the plural form of the word is _attorney_.

The first and most important.I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.1 Answer |

3/3/2022 5:19:39 AM 3/3/2022 5:19:39 AM Is attorney the right plural form of the word attorney?The first and most important.I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.3:22:45 p.m.on March 9, 2022 |

- 11 Answersis a formal assessment of an employee and his or her performance to a certain standard.
- 3/4/2022 11 Responses |
- 2:57:07 P.M.

- Is attorney the right plural form of the word attorney?
- The first and most important.
- I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.
- 3/4/2022 3:50:45 a.m.|
- 11 responses What was it that Lizabeth done as a result of her rage?
- So, what does Lizabeth think?

3/5/2022 6:57:27 PM|9 AnswersThe oceans hold around 70% of all the fresh water on the planet….Weegy: Glaciers are responsible for storing over 70% of all the fresh water on the planet.Wind erosion is particularly frequent in flat, exposed places where there is little vegetation.

|3:51:01 p.m., March 3, 2022|8 responses Questions 1-10: Fill in the blanks with an antonym for the word in question.For starters, he couldn’t stand the cold of Alaska after spending his entire life in the heat of Texas.He’s been accused of stealing, but we don’t believe it.

- |
- 3:06:46 PM, March 3, 2022|
- 8 Answers Fill up the blanks with appropriate information.
- Running records and anecdotal records are both examples of a type of record.

The use of running records and anecdotal records are both examples of Narrative records, according to Weegy.The temperature of a youngster is the first concern.8th of March, 2022, 3:34:09 AM|6 Answers Fill up the blanks with appropriate information.One of the most compelling motivations to write is to express oneself.8:28:56 PM, March 1, 2022|

6 Answers

## PLEASE HELPPP ITS A QUIZ Which tool could be used to measure the mass of a package being mailed? a balance a ruler a marked beak

As a result of gravity’s acceleration, the gymnast experiences a deceleration that is nine times greater than the acceleration.Now, using Newton’s first rule, the net force acting on the gymnast is The weight of the gymnast is represented by W, while the acceleration experienced by the gymnast is represented by a.(acceleration due to gravity) Thus, OR Givenand is used.In the aforementioned formula, substituting these variables and calculating the force exerted by the gymnast would get the following results: Because various surfaces have varying levels of friction, the answer is: Smooth surfaces will help the duster to accelerate, whilst rough surfaces will reduce the duster’s ability to go forward.

Answer: ten north, north-east Explanation: Given that the two forces acting on the item are perpendicular to one other, we may determine the size of their combined resultant force by applying the Pythagorean theorem: Instead, the force’s direction is given bywhere F n denotes the force heading north, and F e denotes the force pointing east, and the angle denotes the angle measured with regard to the direction of the east.I believe that is a description when substituting.A moving thing has a certain amount of momentum.An external force must exert an influence on it in order for its momentum to alter.

The ″impulse″ provided to the item is defined as the product of (force applied) x (length of time the force continues).After the impulse, the object’s momentum is altered in a significant way.When it comes to objects, the impulse is equal to the CHANGE in the object’s momentum.

## what scientific tool is used to measure mass

An ordinary balance may be used to determine the mass of an object. A spring balance is used to determine the weight of the object. The unit of mass is commonly expressed in grams or kilograms. Weight is frequently expressed in newtons, which is a unit of force.

## Which instrument is used to compare the masses of objects?

Instrument used to compare the weights of two bodies, mainly for scientific reasons in order to ascertain the amount of difference in mass between them (or weight).

## What mass instrument is used to measure mass What are the basic units of mass?

The amount of substance contained within an item is referred to as its mass. The gram is the fundamental unit of mass. The mass is measured with the use of a triple beam balance.

## Can you use your phone as scales?

Today’s cellphones are capable of much more than just accepting phone calls. The ability to transform your smartphone into a little set of scales has now been achieved with very minor modifications. Simply download a compatible app, attach it to a post-it note, and place it inside an air cushion to turn cellphones or tablets into digital scales in seconds.

## What tools are used to measure volume or solids volume of liquids mass and distance?

Volumetric glassware, such as the volumetric flask and the graduated cylinder, can be used to measure the volume of a liquid or solid item.

## How do you find the mass of an element in a compound?

In this case, the mass of an element in a given quantity of compound is equal to (atomic mass of the element divided by the number of atoms of the element in one molecule of the compound) divided by the given mass of compound divided by the molar mass of the compound.

## How do you measure mass in the metric system?

Metric Units are the metric equivalent of English units.In the metric system, the gram and the kilogram are two units of mass that are used to measure mass.We can deduce the remainder of the metric units from the gram by applying the standard metric prefixes to them.The mass of a paper clip is around 1 gram.

Approximately one kilogram of water is contained within a one-liter container (plus a little bit extra for the plastic).

## What are the units for mass that are commonly used in the chemistry lab?

The kilogram is the standard unit of mass in SI units, while the meter is the standard unit of length in SI units. The cubic decimeter is the unit of measurement for volume. These standards indicate volumes that are far greater than those that are typically encountered in a chemical laboratory.

## How do scientists make measurements?

When it comes to presenting scientific findings, scientists often employ the metric system, which is a decimal system that is widely used around the world for weights and measurements. The most often encountered SI units for measuring various variables are as follows: Kilogram is the unit of mass. Time is measured in seconds.

## How do we measure science?

## EpicScience – Measuring Mass

## Tools for measuring mass

## Lab Tools and Equipment – Know your glassware and become an expert Chemist! | Chemistry

## Measuring Tools for Length and Mass

In order to measure mass, what tool is used?What units of measurement are used to measure mass?a piece of scientific equipment used to quantify mass What type of tool is used to determine weight?What instrument is used to measure the volume of something?

In order to measure mass and weight, what devices do you use?how to calculate the mass and weight of an object In physics, a weight-measuring instrument is employed.More entries in the FAQ category may be found here.

## Mass or weight: What is measured and what should be reported?

Once upon a time, ornithologists would weigh a bird by placing it on a balance and deducting its weight from the scale, which would give them the bird’s weight in grams.Although balances measure weight, Chardine (1986:832) recommends that ″the term mass be used in preference to weight″ because ″although balances measure weight, they are often rescaled such that mass in grams rather than force in Newtons may be read directly.″ Since then, ornithologists have referred to a bird’s ″mass″ as the amount of weight it carries.There are several reasons to believe that this line of reasoning is erroneous.Kilograms are used to measure the mass of a piece of matter, which is its inherent attribute.

The mass of a bird remains constant throughout its life.A 15-gram bird is a 15-gram bird, regardless of where it is measured: on Earth, the Moon, or Mars.Weight is a unit of measurement for the gravitational force acting on a physical item, and it is measured in newtons.If the weight of a bird with a mass of 15 g is measured on the Moon instead of the Earth, the weight of the bird will vary according to the amount of the gravitational force acting on it and will be significantly different.

Furthermore, the International Prototype Kilogram, which is stored in Paris, would weigh differently (in kilograms, as represented on a balance) if weighed on the Moon.Initially, it appears that the distinction between weight and mass is obvious.What is the source of the ambiguity?The fact that the words ″weight″ and ″mass″ are extremely ancient and have several meanings is a source of confusion.″Mass″ may be defined as ″a amount of matter,″ and the quantity of matter that a person had in the 1700s, which was primarily for the purpose of trading in a market, was measured by weight with a balance or scale (in grains, carats, avoirdupois ounces, troy ounces, pounds, stones, shekels, and so on).

It was in the late 1700s when the French National Assembly and King Louis XVI collaborated to form an expert panel that would define standards for weights and measurements.In the end, the committee suggested that a kilogram be defined as the weight of one cubic decimeter of water at 4 degrees Celsius (Klein 1974).Balances were then built to measure the quantity of substance (i.e, weight) in kilograms, which was a significant step forward.

It wasn’t until the late 1800s that the distinction between mass and weight became meaningful in everyday life, and even then it was only of interest to physicists.It was not until 1904 that the newton was proposed as a unit of measure for the gravitational force acting on a quantity of matter, and it was not until much later that it was accepted by physicists (for example, the 12th edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics defined the ″unit of weight″ as ″the dyne″).Balances were never intended to measure weight in newtons or dynes, as is evident from their design.The balances have not been rescaled in the manner described by Chardine (1986), who claimed that mass in grams rather than force in newtons could be read directly, but this is not the case.Balance manufacturers did not change the scale of balances so that they read mass instead of newtons.

- The distinction between kilograms of mass and newtons of force was made in the mid-20th century, although physical bodies were still measured in what are called ″poor″ units, kilograms-weight (kg-wt), which has been abbreviated to ″kilograms″ for convenience (kg).
- The following is an example from Rogers (1960:124–125; italics in original), ″Weighing-scales are basically force-measurement instruments that are graduated in kilograms or pounds.″ As long as we are dealing with forces in equilibrium (for example, in situations involving levers, cranes, pulleys, and other similar devices), we may maintain the forces in ‘bad’ units since we are only concerned with ratios in our calculations.
- Nonetheless, to serve as a reminder that they are force units, we should express them as kg-wt (= kilograms-weight) to distinguish them from the simple kg that is often used for mass measurements in mathematics.

- We know that our balances measure kilograms of weight rather than kilograms of mass since a mass of one kilogram returns readouts of varying weights at different points on the balance dial..
- Additionally, according to the National Physical Laboratory of the United Kingdom, ″the most straightforward technique of weighing is to simply set a test item on a mass scale and take the displayed reading as the weight of the piece″ (Davidson et al.
- 2004:4).
- Although it is possible to estimate the mass of a bird if one is interested in doing so, the procedure is ″tediousdifficult″ (Rogers 1960).
- Consequently, when we place a bird on a balance, we are measuring its physical weight (in kilograms-weight) rather than its Newtonian mass (in grams-weight).
- Although I believe that we should continue to use the inaccurate (i.e., ″bad″) units of kilograms (or kilogram-weight) instead of newtons (like everyone else does), I believe that we should use the proper term ″weight″ instead of ″mass″ instead.

In contrast, the fact that ornithologists use erroneous units to represent the size of a bird does not excuse them from using erroneous units in their work when force units (newtons) are necessary.As an example, Pennycuick (1987) made it a point to translate the weight of animals (measured in grams) to force units (measured in newtons) when doing research on animal movement.The counsel of physicists (as mentioned above) and the unverified view of Chardine appear to be the only options available to ornithologists when determining whether to use the term ″weight″ or ″mass″ to describe the size of birds (1986).

## Tools Used to Measure Mass

The amount of substance contained within an item is represented by the mass of that thing.As a result, measuring mass does not always imply measuring weight because weight fluctuates in response to the force of gravity.The mass of a thing, on the other hand, remains constant regardless of where it is positioned.The total amount of matter remains unchanged.

In order to measure mass, scientists employ a variety of techniques that vary according to the size and position of the item.

#### TL;DR (Too Long; Didn’t Read)

The amount of substance contained within an item is referred to as its mass. There are a variety of instruments available for measuring mass in a variety of situations. Balances and scales, measuring transducers, vibrating tube sensors, Newtonian mass measurement devices, and the utilization of gravitational interaction between objects are all examples of such devices and methods.

## Balances and Scales

For the majority of ordinary things, scientists use a balance to determine the mass of the object.A balance is a device that compares the mass of an object to the mass of the thing in question.The triple beam balance is one type of balance that may be used.In the metric system, the standard unit of measure for mass is symbolized by the letters kilogram or gram, depending on how it is expressed.

For example, beam balances and digital scientific balanced are two different types of balancing devices.In space, scientists use an inertial balance to quantify the mass of objects.Using a spring to which an object of unknown mass is attached, this form of balance is created.The amount of vibration produced by the item, as well as the stiffness of the spring, aid in the determination of the object’s mass.

Modern digital and spring scales, which may be found in the house, assist in calculating mass.A person stands on a scale, and the scale measures their body weight.The mass of a person is calculated on a digital scale by taking the individual’s body weight and dividing it by the force of gravity.

## Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device (SLAMMD)

Human in-orbit mass is measured using the SLAMMD, a more advanced mass measuring instrument aboard the International Space Station (ISS).In order to operate, the gadget must be mounted on a rack and must rely on Sir Isaac Newton’s Second Law of Motion, which states that force equals mass times acceleration.Through the use of two springs that exert force against a person, this gadget is able to calculate the mass of the person by measuring the force and acceleration.

## Measurement Transducer

When using a balance, it is possible that the mass cannot be calculated.Transducers are used by scientists to determine the mass of a liquid contained in a calibrated tank.At rest, a transducer measures the mass characteristics of the liquid using an electrical signal.An electrical signal is sent from the transducer to a CPU, which then does the mass calculations.

The mass is displayed on the screen by means of an indicator.Gross mass may be calculated by taking the measured mass of liquid below the transducer and subtracting the mass of vapor, the mass of a floating roof, the mass of bottom sediment, and the mass of water to arrive at net mass.

## Vibrating Tube Mass Sensor

Scientists face a number of difficulties when it comes to measuring physical qualities at the tiny level.The vibrating tube mass sensor is a simple yet effective technology for measuring microgram-sized biological samples suspended in fluid.First, the sensor estimates the buoyant mass of an object by calculating the density of the fluid in which it is submerged.After determining the buoyant mass of an object, the absolute mass of the object may be determined by measuring the buoyant mass of the object in various concentrations of fluids.

When used with biomaterials such as embryos, cells, and seeds, this inexpensive and portable sensor can give valuable information.

## Gravitational Interaction

The gravitational interaction of the item in issue with neighboring objects is relied upon by scientists when dealing with massive objects in space.In order to calculate the mass of a star, you must first estimate the distance between it and another star, as well as the duration of their respective motions.Scientists can also determine the mass of galaxies by measuring the speed at which they rotate.

## What Is The Formula For Mass?

- In the physical world, mass is a characteristic of physical things that indicates how resistant that object is to acceleration. The mass of an item may be thought of as a measurement of how much physical ″stuff″ is contained within that thing. While relational qualities such as location, velocity, and potential energy must always be specified in relation to another item or a reference point, mass is an intrinsic property that exists in an object regardless of its relationship to other objects or a reference point. The mass of an item may be determined in a variety of methods, including the following: Mass equals density times volume (m=V). As mass per unit of volume is measured by density, the mass of an item may be calculated by multiplying the density by the volume of the object.
- Mass equals force times acceleration (m=F/a). Newton’s second law of motion (F=ma) states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to the object. Therefore, when a constant force is applied, the amount of acceleration associated with it is inversely proportional to the mass of the object being moved.
- Mass equals the product of weight and gravitational acceleration (m=W/g).
- When mass is accelerated in a gravitational field, the resultant weight is called weight. The weight will vary according on the degree of gravitational acceleration

Using any of these equations, you can figure out how heavy something is without lifting it. As a fundamental attribute, mass is not defined in terms of other units, such as the joule (J) or newton (N), as are other physical quantities. There are a variety of alternative methods for determining the mass of an item, but these three formulas are the most frequent. m=ρVm=W/gm=F/a

## Units Of Mass

The kilogram is the recognised unit of mass in the International System of Units (Kg).The kilogram is the only base SI unit that has a prefix in its name, which is the kilogramme (kilo-).One kilogram was originally defined as the mass of one cubic deciliter (dL) of water at its melting point when the unit was first introduced.After the International Kilogram Prototype (IPK) was created in 1889, the kilogram was defined as the mass of this physical item, which was intended to be the worldwide reference mass for the kilogram.

It was originally a cast-iron weight, which is how the IPK got its name.A unique platinum alloy is used to construct the current recognized IPK, which is 39 millimeters tall.″Words, like everything else, have real substance — mass, weight, and specific gravity.″ Tim O’Brien is a writer who lives in New York City.A tangible object serves as a reference value for the kilogram, according to the International System of Units (SI) as of 2018.

Everything else in the International System of Units has been redefined in terms of basic physical constants such as the speed of light or the Planck constant, among others.When the General Conference of Weights and Measures (GCPM) agreed in November 2018 to redefine the kilogram in terms of fundamental physical constants, a change that will take effect on May 20, 2019, was welcomed by the international community.

## Ways To Calculate Mass

### From Density And Volume

It is a measure of the amount of mass contained inside a unit volume of an item, and it is frequently symbolized by the Greek letter ″.″ Density, in its most basic form, indicates how closely packed the mass of an item is.The greater the density of a thing, the greater the amount of mass it has per unit of volume.At standard temperatures and pressures, water, for example, has a density of 977 kg/m3 at typical temperatures and pressures.As a result, one cubic meter of water weighs 977 kg, or 977 kilograms.

If we know the density and volume of a material, we can use that information to calculate the mass of that substance.Consider the following scenario: we have a 0.7m3 sample of water.What kind of mass does that sample contain?When we solve for mass, we get the following:m=Vm=(0.7m3)(977kg/m3) = 683 kg A cubic meter of water at normal temperature and pressure has a mass of 683 kg, which is equal to 0.5 cubic meters.

Some items are extremely dense in comparison to others.When it comes to density, a neutron star, for instance, has an average density of 1.1 x 1018 kg/m3.On Earth, a single teaspoon of a neutron star would be equivalent to around 100 million tons.Mass becomes static; it is incapable of maneuvering and, as a result, is unable to earn wins; it can only be crushed by sheer weight.Hans Von Seeckt was a German writer and poet who lived in the 19th century.

### From Force And Acceleration

Alternatively, the attribute of mass may be thought of as the measurement of a physical object’s resistance to being accelerated by the application of an external force.Occasionally, this idea of mass is referred to as inertial mass or inertial energy.Because inertia is the propensity for a moving body to maintain a steady state of motion, inertial mass is a measure of how much inertia a body has and how difficult it is to alter its state of motion.Inertial mass is measured in kilograms.

The link between mass, force, and acceleration is described by Newton’s second law of motion, F=ma, which stands for mass, force, and acceleration.This mathematical connection informs us that a more large body will accelerate more slowly when subjected to a constant force.Calculating the mass of a body is accomplished by measuring the force given to the body and the acceleration that results from that force.Consider the following scenario: we apply a 748 N force to a metal cube, and we measure the cube’s acceleration to be 21m/s2.

What is the mass of the metal cube in kilograms (lb)?It is possible to find out how much mass is required by dividing the force by the rate of acceleration, as follows: m = F/am=(748N)/2 (12.1 m/s2) = 35.62 kg As a result, we may calculate that the metal cube must weigh 35.62 kg.

### From Weight

Weighing something and having it weigh something are two entirely different things.In English, the terms ″weight″ and ″mass″ are equivalent; but, in the physical sciences, the terms have different meanings altogether.The attribute of mass is invariant, meaning that it does not vary from one position to another.When a heavy body is considered, its weight is a measure of the gravitational field strength acting on it.

Because the gravitational field strength can alter depending on the location, for example, the Moon has a lesser gravitational field strength than the Earth, the weight of an item might vary depending on the surroundings.The link between mass and weight is represented by the equation W = mg, where g is the measure of gravitational acceleration.The exact value of g varies depending on where you are in the world.Earth’s gravity is approximately 9.81 meters per second2, whereas the moon’s gravity is approximately 1.6 meters per second2.

The formula W=mg expresses weight in Newtons, although most people’s common concept of weight is expressed in pounds (lbs).The conversion rate from newtons to pounds is about one Newton equals 0.22 pounds.A 50 kilogram item would have a weight in pounds of:W=(50kg)(9.81m/s2)=490.5NC if it were placed on the surface of the Earth where g=9.81 m/s2.Converting newtons to pounds yields the following result: 490.5N (.22lbs/1N).108 kilos (around 108 pounds) In contrast, on the moon, where g has a value of 1.6m/s2, a 50 kg item would weigh:W=50(kg)(1.6m/s2)(0.22lbs/1N)18 pounds, where W=50(kg)(1.6m/s2)(0.22lbs/1N)18 pounds.

On Earth, a 50 kg item weighs 108 lbs, whereas on the moon, it weighs just 18 lbs.In the same way, if we know the weight of an item, we may work backwards to determine the mass of the thing.Consider the following scenario: an item weights 160 pounds of Earth.

The mass of the item may be calculated as follows: 180lbs(1N/0.22lbs)=818.18N818.18N=m(9.81m/s2) m=818.18N/(9.81m/s2)83.4 kg m=818.18N/(9.81m/s2) m=818.18N/(9.81m/s2) m=818.18N/(9.81m/s2) As a result, a 180 lb body on Earth has an approximate mass of 84.3 kg.

## Mass-Energy Equivalence

Scientific community believed for a long time that an object’s mass could be considered fully independent of the object’s other attributes.However, Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which was developed in the early twentieth century, demonstrated that mass and energy are actually two distinct labels for the same physical entity.In particular, Einstein’s famous equation E=mc2 relates the mass of an item to its total energy, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum and m is the mass of the thing.Because E=mc2 informs us that the total energy of a non-moving substance is directly related to its mass by a factor of c2, we can use this equation to calculate the speed of light.

Because c=3,000,000 m/s, the factor c2 is an extraordinarily huge number.A small amount of mass, therefore, includes an enormous amount of inherent energy, even though it is very small.To put the magnitude of the matter into perspective, the entire amount of energy released by totally turning 1 gram of matter into energy is about equal to 21.5 kilotons of TNT, which is approximately the same as the destructive power of the Hiroshima nuclear bomb.″Any fool can figure it out.

″The important thing is to comprehend.″ Albert Einstein was a scientist and inventor.The conversion of matter to energy occurs in some physical processes, such as nuclear fission or the movement of a body in a strong gravitational field, and the energy is manifested as vast amounts of light and heat.In particular, Einstein’s equation teaches us how to compute the amount of energy released during such processes by solving the equation.Consider the following scenario: 30 kg of uranium (Ur) is placed in a nuclear reactor.It is estimated that around 0.1 percent of this mass is entirely transformed into energy during fission.

What is the amount of energy that is produced?The product of 0.1 percent of 30 kilograms is 0.3 kg.Plugging this into Einstein’s equation yields the following results:E=(0.3 kg)(3,000,000)2=(0.3)(8.98755179 1016)=2.69626554 1016 J.

It takes 0.3 kg (0.6 lbs) of matter to completely transform it into energy, releasing a total of 2.69626554 x 1016 J of energy.In terms of energy, this is roughly equivalent to detonating nearly 6 million tons of TNT (12 billion pounds), which would be sufficient to utterly destroy even the most populous metropolitan areas.Additionally, we may work backwards from a given quantity of energy to discover the amount of mass that has been transformed.Consider the following scenario: a fission reaction yields 1.6178 1016 joules of energy.Is it possible to estimate how much mass was turned into energy throughout this process?

- We can calculate the following using our handy-dandy mass-energy equivalency formula:1.6178 1016 J =m(8.98755179 1016)(1.6178 1016)/8.98755179 1016)=mm 0.18 kg As a result, about 0.18 kg of mass was turned into energy.

## Why Do Objects Have Mass?

It has only been recently that scientists have begun to unravel the mystery of why particles have mass in the first place.Certain scientists recognized some issues with their equations explaining the behavior of basic particles in the 1960s, and they decided to look into it more.Their models indicated that certain particles created during high-speed collisions would have no mass, which was confirmed by the experimenters.In actuality, experimental observation revealed that these particles did, in fact, have a mass that was more than zero.

Scientists hypothesized that the mass of a boson may be formed by the interaction of those bosons with an all-pervading field known as the Higgs field, which they discovered in particle physics (in honor of one of its theorizers Peter Higgs).Because of this field, when massless bosons move against it, their momentum is retarded, and they lose some of their energy.The Higgs field turns this energy into mass-energy, which expresses itself in the form of the property mass that we can observe and measure.It was expected that the interaction between the bosons and the Higgs field would result in the creation of a new particle, a small boson known as the Higgs boson.

When the particle accelerator at CERN ultimately established the existence of the Higgs particle in 2013, Peter Higgs and François Englert were given the Nobel Prize in physics for their theoretical work on the particle, which was awarded on October 8, 2013.

## About Alex Bolano PRO INVESTOR

When Alex isn’t nerdily trawling the internet for science news, he likes playing tabletop role-playing games and making ridiculously obscure television references in his spare time. Alex graduated with honors from the University of Missouri-St. Louis with a Master’s degree.

## Measuring Mass

Measuring the mass of an object Balances are used in the laboratory to measure the mass of the objects being measured.Despite the fact that there are many different types of balances, they are all expensive and delicate devices that must be maintained with care and respect.The vast majority of balances in use today are electronic balances.It is necessary to visit your instructor if this is not the case at your institution in order to acquire instructions on how to make use of your balances.

Rules of Equilibrium The following guidelines should be observed in order to safeguard the balances and assure correct results:

1. | Always check that the balance is level before using it. |

2. | Never weigh directly on the balance pan.Always use a piece of weighing paper to protect it. |

3. | Never add chemicals to a container or piece of weighing paper while it is on the balance. |

4. | Do not weigh hot or cold objects. |

5. | Clean up any spills around the balance immediately. |

Direct Weighing (sometimes known as direct weighing) is a method of determining how much something weighs.Direct weighing refers to the process of placing an object directly on a balance and reading the mass of the thing.To achieve precise results when weighing directly, it is essential that the balance is correctly zeroed (that is, that it reads zero with nothing on the balance pan).Weighing Things According to Their Dissimilarities It is necessary to obtain two measurements in order to weigh by difference.

These measures can be taken in one of two ways: first, using a tape measure, and second, with a digital scale.

(1) | A clean piece of weighing paper is placed on the balance and weighed.This is the first reading.The substance to be weighed out is then placed on the weighing paper and weighed.This is the second reading.The mass of the substance is determined by subtracting the first reading from the second. (mass of paper + substance) – (mass of paper) = (mass of substance) |

(2) | A container holding the substance of interest is placed on the balance and weighed.This is the first reading.The substance to be used is removed from the container and the container weighed again.This is the second reading.The mass of substance taken is determined by subtracting the second reading from the first. (mass of container + substance) – (mass of container + substance after removal) = (mass of substance removed) |

When weighing by difference, there is no need to zero the balance precisely since any inaccuracy in the first reading will be cancelled out when the readings are subtracted from the original readings.However, it is usually a good habit to zero the balance when you first start to ensure that everything is operating properly..Taring It is possible to automate the process of weighing by difference with the use of a taring balance.A balance that is tared with an object on the balance pan will automatically remove the weight of the object from all subsequent readings until the balance is re-tared or zeroed, whichever comes first.

Consider the following illustration.A beaker is put on the balance pan, and the tare button is pressed to complete the measurement.The number zeroes should appear on the screen (the mass of the beaker minus the mass of the same beaker should equal zero).If a material is now introduced to the beaker, just the mass of the substance is presented on the display screen.

Taring is a highly easy way of weighing out chemicals, and it is one that you will most likely use on a regular basis.Take a look at these samples.

## Mass Vs Weight

Mass vs.weight is a comparison of the two terms.Mass and weight are sometimes mistaken, although they are not the same thing.What makes the difference is that there is something that binds the Universe together – gravity!

Weight is a type of force, and it is used to quantify the gravitational attraction on an item.Objects have mass, which is a measurement of the quantity of substance they contain.Weighing one bag of sugar would be less difficult on the Moon than it would be on the Earth because the force of gravity acting on it would be less strong there than it would be on the Earth.In this case, the bag of sugar would retain its original bulk.

The relationship between mass and weight is represented by the equation Weight = mass x gravity.Newton’s Second Law of Motion (also known as Newton’s Second Law of Motion) is an equation that describes motion.Specifically, force equals mass multiplied by acceleration (F = ma), where force (or weight) is measured in Newtons (N) and mass is measured in kilograms (kg).Consider the following: the more mass an object has, the more difficult it is to move it.Gravity’s strength is always constant, but the value of that strength varies depending on the size and mass of the celestial body in question.

The gravitational constant, g, on Earth is 9.81 m/s2 (the unit is metres per second squared).The gravity on the Moon is approximately one-sixth that of the gravity on Earth, and the gravity on each planet is different.You can use the activities listed below to figure out how much you would weigh on each of the planets in question.

Activity (for the majority of ages): Trying to figure out your weight on another planet Activity at a higher level: Planets are carrying a lot of weight.Once you have finished the task and determined how much you weigh on each of the planets, you will be able to respond to the following questions.1).On which planet would you be the heaviest in terms of weight?2) On which planet would you be the lightest in weight?

- 3) On which planet would the most mass have been concentrated?
- In the case of a cat with a mass of 4kg, how much would the cat weigh on the planet Jupiter?
- 5) If an elephant weighs 1000kg, how much would it weigh if it were to land on Mars?

- Something to keep in mind: on Earth, we weigh ourselves using scales, similar to the ones you could see in the bathroom when getting ready.
- These scales provide you with an answer in kilograms (kg) (or perhaps stones and pounds).
- This is erroneous since only mass is measured in kilograms (kg), but the number shown on your scales includes the impact of gravity and should be expressed in Newtonian units (N).
- This is a cultural phenomenon, and it does not imply that your bathroom scales are malfunctioning!

## Direct and Indirect Measurements

Direct measurement and indirect measurement are the two ways used to produce dimensional measurements.Direct measurement is the more accurate of the two approaches.Direct measurements are made with measuring equipment such as Vernier calipers, micrometers, and coordinate measuring machines, which are used to directly measure the dimensions of the target.

- These measures are referred to as absolute measurements in some circles.
- When measuring throughout a large range given by the scale of a measuring device, there is a risk that the measurement will be incorrect owing to inaccurate readings on the scale, but there is also a chance that the measurement will be correct.
- The dimensions are measured using indirect methods, such as dial gauges, that look at the difference between targets and reference devices, such as gauge blocks and ring gauges, to determine their dimensions.

This type of measurement is also referred to as a comparative measurement owing to the fact that the comparison is carried out using an object that has standard dimensions.In general, the more specified the shape and dimensions of a reference device, the less difficult it is to make accurate measurements.Although this approach has several advantages, it also has some drawbacks, including a narrow measuring range.Measurement in the open Contrasts are made with the reference device.

A Target B Gauge block is a type of gauge block.INDEX

## Types of data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio

- Updated onDecember 28, 2021
- In Data Analysis

There are four different types of data measurement scales in statistics: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.These are basic methods of sub-categorizing various forms of data (see this review of statistical data categories for more information).This subject is typically discussed in the framework of academic instruction, and it is handled less frequently in the ″real world″ setting.

- This notion was developed by a psychological researcher named Stanley Stevens, and it is thanks to him that you are brushing up on it in preparation for a statistics test.
- As you’ll see in the next section, the easiest way to understand these four data measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio) is through an example.

## Nominal

Let’s start with the one that is the most straightforward to comprehend.In the absence of a quantitative value, nominal scales are utilized for the labeling of variables.A more straightforward term for nominal scales is ″labels.″ Here are a few illustrations to illustrate my point.

- It should be noted that all of these scales are mutually exclusive (there is no overlap) and that none of them has any numerical importance.
- Another way to remember all of this is to think of ″nominal″ as sounding a lot like ″name,″ and nominal scales as sounding a lot like names or labels, respectively.
- Please keep in mind that a ″dichotomous″ scale is a form of nominal scale that has only two categories (for example, male/female).

If you are a student, you may utilize this to your advantage to impress your professor.Bonus The nominal data types ″nominal with order″ (such as ″cold, warm, hot, extremely hot″) and ″nominal without order″ (such as ″male/female″ are also sub-types of nominal data.

## Ordinal

It is the order of the values that is crucial and relevant in ordinal scales; nevertheless, it is not understood what the distinctions are between each one.Take a look at the following illustration.In each scenario, we know that a4 is superior to a3 or 2, but we don’t know how much better it is–and we are unable to define how much better it is.

- If you want to know the difference between ″OK″ and ″Unhappy,″ ask yourself if it’s the same as the difference between ″Very Happy″ and ″Happy.″ We are unable to comment.
- In most cases, ordinal scales are used to assess non-numerical variables such as satisfaction, happiness, pain, and so on.
- Although the term ″ordinal scales″ is simple to remember because it sounds like the word ″order,″ the key to remembering them is that it is the order that counts with them–it is the order that matters, but that is all you truly receive from them.

Note for advanced users: The mode or median are the most accurate ways to detect central tendency on a collection of ordinal data; a purist will tell you that the mean cannot be determined from an ordinal set.

## Interval

Interval scales are numerical scales in which we know both the sequence in which the numbers are presented and the exact disparities between them.The Celsius temperature scale is the most well-known example of an interval scale since the difference between each value is the same.Examples include the temperature differential of detectable magnitude between 60 and 50 degrees, and the difference between 80 and 70 degrees, among other things.

- Interval scales are useful because they broaden the scope of statistical analysis that can be performed on these data sets.
- For example, central tendency can be quantified using the mode, the median, or the mean; standard deviation can also be computed using these methods as well.
- You can recall the main points of a ″interval scale″ in the same way that you can remember the others.

The term ″interval″ literally translates as ″space in between,″ which is crucial to understand since interval scales not only inform us about the sequence of items, but they also tell us about the value between each item.One of the problems with interval scales is that there is no such thing as a ″genuine zero.″ When it comes to temperature, there is no such thing as ″no temperature,″ at least not when it comes to celsius.With interval scales, zero does not represent the lack of a value, but rather another number that is utilized on the scale, such as 0 degrees celsius in the case of temperature.Negative numbers have significance as well.

It is difficult to compute ratios in the absence of a genuine zero.When dealing with interval data, we can only add and subtract; we cannot multiply or split the data.Confused?Consider the following: 10 degrees Celsius plus 10 degrees Celsius equals 20 degrees Celsius.There isn’t a problem there.20 degrees Celsius is not twice as hot as 10 degrees Celsius, however, because there is no such thing as ″no temperature″ on the Celsius scale when it comes to temperature.

When measured in Fahrenheit, the difference is clear: 10 degrees Celsius equals 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and 20 degrees Celsius equals 68 degrees Fahrenheit, which is clearly not twice as hot.It is my hope that this makes sense.In conclusion, interval scales are fantastic, but they do not allow us to compute ratios, which takes us to our last measuring scale…

## Ratio

Data measurement scales such as ratio scales are the pinnacle of perfection when it comes to data measurement scales because they provide information on both order and exact value between units, as well as having an absolute zero, which allows for the application of many different statistical methods, including both descriptive and inference.Even at the risk of stating the obvious, everything I’ve said thus far about interval data applies to ratio scales as well, because ratio scales have a very clear definition of zero.Height, weight, and duration are all good examples of ratio factors to consider.

- For statistical analysis, ratio scales open the door to an almost limitless number of options.
- Adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing these variables can have important results (ratios).
- The mode, median, and mean are all measures of central tendency; measurements of dispersion, such as the standard deviation and coefficient of variation, may be determined using ratio scales as can the standard deviation and coefficient of variation.

## Summary

In summary, nominal variables are used to ″name″ or label a collection of values by assigning a numerical value to each value.Ordinal scales are useful in a variety of situations, such as customer satisfaction surveys, since they offer information regarding the order of options.Using interval scales, we can determine the order of values while also being able to measure the difference between each of them.

- After everything is said and done, ratio scales provide the ultimate solution–order, interval values, as well as the capacity to compute ratios since a ″true zero″ may be specified.
- That’s all there is to it!
- I hope my explanation was clear, and that you now understand the four different types of data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio measurements.

Go out and grab ’em!If you want to put your abilities to the test, take the little quiz below (not working?(Try it on a desktop browser if you have one):

## University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center

## Lesson 1.2

## Variables and Measures

It’s understandable that you would wonder why you’d need to know about different sorts of variables or measurements.You must be aware of this in order to assess the suitability of the statistical techniques employed and, subsequently, the validity of the conclusions drawn as a result of these procedures.In other words, you won’t be able to judge whether the conclusions of a given medical research study are legitimate until you know what variables or measurements were utilized to gather the information.

Variables and Measures | |
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Practice Exercise 1: | You need to know the types of variable to: No Response Know biostatistical vocabulary Evaluate medical research studies Compute statistics None of the above |

##### Lesson 1: Summary Measures of Data 1.2 – 2

##### Biostatistics for the Clinician

### 1.2.2Types of Variables

Take a look at the left-hand side of Figure 1.1 in the next section.As you can see, one method of looking at variables is to categorize them into four different types of variables ( nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio).These relate to the different levels of measurement connected with the different variables.

- It is common practice to refer to the kind of variable by referring to the degree of measure in ordinary conversations.
- As a result, you may talk about nominal, ordinal, interval, and other types of variables.
- It does not follow that one category is superior than the other.

However, it is true that you normally have more information about certain people than you do about others, and that you are more accustomed to dealing with some people than you are with others.For example, with interval and ratio variables, you may compute averages and other similar calculations.You are aware that there are numbers.You can do things like add them up, split them, and so on.

When dealing with nominal and ordinal variables, things can get a little more complicated.However, when it comes to human trials, there is no way to get around it.Nominal and ordinal variables are frequently encountered in your work.

Figure 1.1: Types of Variables |
---|

##### Lesson 1: Summary Measures of Data 1.2 – 3

##### Biostatistics for the Clinician

#### Four Types of Variables

Take another look at Figure 1.1.Notice that there are four distinct sorts of measuring scales to choose from?(nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio).

- Each of the four scales, in its own way, often gives more information about the variables being assessed than the scales that came before it in the sequence.
- Because of this, the phrases ″nominal,″ ″ordinal,″ ″interval,″ and ″ratio″ are frequently used to describe the different levels of measurement.
- Take a look at the distinctions between them so you can identify which one is which.

Variables and Measures | |
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Practice Exercise 2: | How many different levels of measure for variables exist? No Response 1 2 3 4 |

#### Nominal Variables

I’m curious about where the term ″nominal″ originates from.It has everything to do with naming.The term nominal derives from the word ″nominal,″ because that is all that can be done with variables assessed using nominal scales (nominal variables).

- That there is no measure of distance between the values is extremely crucial to note.
- Either you’re married or you’re not married.
- Yes or no is the response that has been determined.

As a result, there is no doubt about how widely apart those groups are in terms of numeric distance.They’re only names, after all.The only thing that nominal scales accomplish is provide names to things.Others include gender (male or female), color (black, Hispanic, Oriental, white, other), political party (Democrat, Republican), blood type (A, B, AB, O), and pregnancy status (pregnant or not pregnant), to name a few.

Variables and Measures | |
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Practice Exercise 3: | Can the distances between the categories of a nominal variable be measured? No Response Yes No |

#### Ordinal Variables

It is possible to have a bit more sophistication in the following type of variable than you can obtain with only names alone (see Figure 1.1).What exactly does the word ordinal imply?Ordinal suggests a sense of order.

- In addition, order denotes a ranking.
- The objects that are being measured are arranged in some sort of hierarchy.
- You have the option of having bigger or lesser quantities.

When dealing with ordinal variables, the phrases less than and greater than are meaningful, while they were not when dealing with nominal variables.For example, you do not differentiate between males and females in terms of higher and lower rankings.However, you do assign a numerical value to certain cancer stages, such as higher and lower stages.Pains can be ranked from most severe to least severe.

As a result, ordinal variables provide a more complex degree of measurement – a level of measurement that is more finely tailored.However, you have only included this one ranking-related aspect in your new addition.You are aware that something is higher or lower than something else, or that something is more painful than something else, or that something is less painful than something else.As a result, ordinal scales both the name and the order.Others include rankings (e.g., football’s top 20 teams, pop music’s top 40 songs), order of finish (first, second, third, and so on), cancer stages (stages I through III) and hypertension classifications (stages 1, 2, and 3 in the case of hypertension) (mild, moderate, severe).

Variables and Measures | |
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Practice Exercise 4: | Nominal variables name only. Ordinal variables: No Response Name only Order only Both name and order |

##### Lesson 1: Summary Measures of Data 1.2 – 4

##### Biostatistics for the Clinician

#### Interval Variables

In the case of interval variables (see Figure 1.1), what happens?What is the difference between them?What is the significance of the term ″interval variable″ in relation to temperature variables in Celsius and Fahrenheit?

- These variables are referred to as interval variables since the intervals between the numbers indicate a real-world occurrence.
- Ordinal variables, on the other hand, do not behave in this way.
- Unlike continuous variables, which are characterized by numerical differences, interval variables are characterized by genuine numerical differences in the variable.

To put it another way, the same disparities in the numbers on a scale indicate the same differences in the underlying variables being assessed when the numbers on the scale are equal.As an example, what is the difference between 36 degrees and 37 degrees in Fahrenheit temperatures compared to the difference between 40 degrees and 41 degrees in Celsius temperatures?Is the difference between the two the same?When you have an interval variable, you can be sure that temperature intervals are the same since the variations in the numbers are the same as well.

You can now tell not only if one value is greater than another, but also whether the lengths between the intervals on each scale are equal.This is made possible by using interval variables.Once again, you possess a better level of knowledge..Interval scales not only distinguish between names and orders, but they also have the feature that equal intervals in the numbers measured imply true equal differences in the variables, which is called the equal interval property.Examples of interval scales include the temperatures in Fahrenheit and Celsius already stated, as well as SAT, GRE, MAT, and IQ scores, to name a few.In general, interval scales are used in a large number of standardized exams in the psychological, sociological, and educational disciplines.

Each of the interval measurements has the characteristic that the value of zero is completely arbitrary.The freezing point of water, for example, is represented by the number zero on the Celsius scale.When measured on the Fahrenheit scale, the temperature of 0 is 32 degrees below the freezing point of water.

Variables and Measures | |
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Practice Exercise 5: | Interval variables: No Response Name, order & have equal intervals Name and order only Order only Name only |

##### Lesson 1: Summary Measures of Data 1.2 – 5

##### Biostatistics for the Clinician

#### Ratio Variables

A real absolute zero is present in ratio variables, in addition to all of the qualities of interval variables.As a result, a value of zero reflects the complete absence of the variable under consideration.Longitude and latitude measurements in either the English or metric systems, time measurements in seconds minutes hours and other units of time such as millimeters of mercury, age, and commonly used measurements such as mass, weight, and volume are all instances of ratio variables (see Figure 1.1).

- They are referred to as ratio variables since they may be expressed as ratios when dealing with this sort of variable.
- It makes logical to state that 100 feet is twice as long as 50 feet since the length of a foot is measured on a scale of one to one hundred.
- In the same way, it makes sense to state that a Kelvin temperature of 100 is twice as hot as a Kelvin temperature of 50 since it represents twice as much thermal energy as the lower temperature (unlike Fahrenheit temperatures of 100 and 50).

The sole difference between ratio variables and interval variables is that ratio variables have a genuine zero, which allows you to talk about ratios in a meaningful way.To put it another way, a person’s lung capacity can be twice as large as another’s lung capacity.That type of assertion requires the ability to compute meaningful ratios, which can only be accomplished if you have a real zero in your possession.However, for the purposes of statistical tests, it makes no difference whether the variables are interval or ratio variables.

Variables and Measures | |
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Practice Exercise 6: | Ratio variables have: No Response A real 0 Equal intervals Order Name All except ″No Response″ above |

##### Lesson 1: Summary Measures of Data 1.2 – 6

##### Biostatistics for the Clinician

#### Qualitative vs. Quantitative Variables

Take another look at (Figure 1.1).It is possible to notice that there are two bigger classes for the types of variables that you have been studying on the left-hand side of the screen.There are qualitative factors and quantitative variables in a statistical analysis.

- Clearly, the four levels of measure (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio) fit into these two bigger supercategories, as can be seen in the diagram.
- As a result, inter