Although it was created for use in Red Hat Linux, RPM is now used in many Linux distributions such as Fedora Linux, AlmaLinux, CentOS, openSUSE, OpenMandriva and Oracle Linux.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Fedora, and many other Linux distributions group their software together in packages using what is referred to as RPM Package Manager (RPM). The ‘R’ in RPM originally stood for ‘Red Hat’ but changed a few years ago to the recursive ‘RPM’ to reflect the fact that other Linux distributions besides Red Hat use this packaging system. If you are new to administering systems that use RPM packaging, it is important that you understand what RPM packages are and how you work
What are Yum and rpm for package management?
Package management is a common task for every system. YUM and RPM provide efficient ways to install, upgrade, remove, and track software packages on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems. [ Want to try out Red Hat Enterprise Linux?
What package management tools do Linux distros use?
Linux distros often use different package management tools. Red Hat-based distros use RPM (RPM Package Manager) and YUM/DNF (Yellow Dog Updater, Modified/Dandified YUM).
What are the different modes of package management in rpm?
RPM has some basic modes: query, verify, install, upgrade, erase, show querytags, show configuration. At least one of these modes needs to be selected to perform package management tasks.
What is package management in Linux?
Package management is a method of installing, updating, removing, and keeping track of software updates from specific repositories (repos) in the Linux system. Linux distros often use different package management tools.
Which of the following commands will install an RPM package?
We can install the RPM package with the following command: rpm -ivh
Which of the following file extensions are used by the Debian package manager?
deb (file format)
|The GNOME icon for deb files. (Showing the Debian logo on a package)|
|Type of format||Package management system|
|Container for||Software package|
|Extended from||ar archive, tarball|
Under which version of the GPL is the Linux kernel distributed?
The Linux Kernel is provided under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only (GPL-2.0), as published by the Free Software Foundation, and provided in the COPYING file.
Which of the following are examples of embedded computing devices?
Examples of standalone embedded systems include:
Where does RPM install packages?
RPM keeps the information of all the installed packages under /var/lib/rpm database. RPM is the only way to install packages under Linux systems, if you’ve installed packages using source code, then rpm won’t manage it.
What is an RPM package file?
A file with the RPM file extension is a Red Hat Package Manager file that’s used to store installation packages on Linux operating systems. These files provide an easy way for software to be distributed, installed, upgraded, and removed since they’re ‘packaged’ in one place.
What is RPM package manager in Linux?
RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager. It was developed by Red Hat and is primarily used on Red Hat-based Linux operating systems (Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, etc.). An RPM package uses the. rpm extension and is a bundle (a collection) of different files.
What is the use of Debian package?
A Debian ‘package’, or a Debian archive file, contains the executable files, libraries, and documentation associated with a particular suite of program or set of related programs. Normally, a Debian archive file has a filename that ends in. deb.
Which packaging system does Debian use?
The current Debian package management system which can utilize all these resources is Advanced Packaging Tool (APT). The Debian package management system, when used properly, offers the user to install consistent sets of binary packages to the system from the archive.
Can I use GNU GPL for commercial?
Software under the GPL may be run for all purposes, including commercial purposes and even as a tool for creating proprietary software, such as when using GPL-licensed compilers. Users or companies who distribute GPL-licensed works (e.g. software), may charge a fee for copies or give them free of charge.
What is GNU GPL v3?
GPL v3 License: The Basics
Like the GPL v2, GPL 3 is a strong copyleft license, meaning that any copy or modification of the original code must also be released under the GPL v3. In other words, you can take the GPL 3’d code, add to it or make major changes, then distribute your version.
What is GNU GPL v2?
Among today’s more popular OSS licenses is the GNU (of the GNU Project) General Public License Version 2.0, commonly referred to as simply GPL v2. Initially released in 1991, the GPL 2 is a copyleft license, meaning users must abide by some strict rules and requirements.
How are embedded computers used in appliances?
Household appliances, such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, include embedded systems to provide flexibility, efficiency and features. Advanced HVAC systems use networked thermostats to more accurately and efficiently control temperature that can change by time of day and season.
What is an embedded product?
Embedded Product means any product which operates with executable code form of the Source Code, the Modified Source Code or the Binary Code loaded on its hardware.
Which one of the following is an example of small scale embedded system?
Small Scale : Systems that are designed using 8~blt microcontrollers like 8051 or 16-bit microcontrollers like 80196 fall under this category of embedded systems i.e. small scale embedded systems. The hardware and software complexities in these systems is very low.
What are Yum and rpm for package management?
Package management is a common task for every system. YUM and RPM provide efficient ways to install, upgrade, remove, and track software packages on Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems. [ Want to try out Red Hat Enterprise Linux?
What are the different modes of package management in rpm?
RPM has some basic modes: query, verify, install, upgrade, erase, show querytags, show configuration. At least one of these modes needs to be selected to perform package management tasks.
Linux package management with YUM and RPM
- Installing, patching, and uninstalling software packages on Linux workstations is a frequent operation that every system administrator is required to perform.
- Here’s how to get started with Linux package management in Linux distributions based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (distros).
- In the Linux operating system, package management refers to the process of installing, updating, deleting, and keeping track of software updates that are available from specified repositories (repos).
- Different Linux distributions make use of a variety of package management technologies.
Red Hat-based distributions make use of RPM (RPM Package Manager) and YUM/DNF (Yellow Dog Updater, Modified/Dandified YUM), which are both available for free.Yellow Dog Updater with a few tweaks (YUM) YUM is the major package management tool in Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and it is responsible for installing, updating, uninstalling, and managing software packages.When installing, updating, and deleting software packages, YUM takes care of the dependency resolution for you.YUM can handle packages from repositories that have been installed on the system as well as from.rpm packages.
- YUM’s primary configuration file is located at /etc/yum.conf, and all of its repositories are located at /etc/yum.repos.d.
- If you want to learn more about adding repositories to your system, check out Amy Marrich’s post on how to install a YUM repository to your system.
- Managing packages in Linux is simple thanks to the YUM package management system.
- Enter the following command at the command prompt: yum -option command When working with YUM, there are a plethora of choices and instructions to choose from.
- I’ve included a list of some of the most often used YUM commands below:
|yum install||Installs the specified packages|
|remove||Removes the specified packages|
|search||Searches package metadata for keywords|
|update||Updates each package to the latest version|
|history||Displays what has happened in past transactions|
The following are some of the most often utilized YUM options:
|-C||Runs from system cache|
|-security||Includes packages that provide a fix for a security issue|
|-y||Answers yes to all questions|
|-skip-broken||Skips packages causing problems|
- The history option provides you with a summary of what has occurred in previous transactions.
- Information such as the date on which the transaction took place and what command was executed can be obtained from this source.
- Using the history command, you may go back in time and undo or redo certain transactions.
- Here’s an illustration of how to reverse a transaction: yum undoing the past YUM gives a plethora of choices for managing packages.
Look at man yum and yum –help for more in-depth information on the available options.Here is a link to the YUM documentation, if you need it.RPM (RPM Package Manager) RPM is a package management tool that is widely used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux-based operating systems.Individual software packages can be installed, uninstalled, and queried using the RPM package manager.
- Despite this, it is unable to manage dependency resolution in the same way that YUM does.
- RPM does give you with valuable output, including a list of the packages that are required.
- An RPM package is made up of a collection of files and information that are archived together.
- Helper scripts, file properties, and information about packages are all included in the metadata.
- RPM keeps track of all of the packages that have been installed, allowing for powerful and quick searches.
The RPM database is located in the /var/lib directory, in a file with the extension db*.Among the fundamental modes of RPM are the following: query; verify; install; upgrade; delete; show querytags and show configuration.It is necessary to pick at least one of these modes in order to undertake package management operations.Every mode offers a unique collection of settings to choose from.For example, install mode I has its own set of installation choices that are distinct from the others.
- The options for the modes may be found in the RPM man pages, which can be obtained at man rpm.
- The following are some of the most often utilized modes:
|-i||Installs a package|
|-U||Upgrades a package|
|-e||Erases a package|
|-V||Verifies a package|
|-q||Queries a package|
Here are a few often used general choices to get you started:
|-? | -help||Prints help|
|-version||Prints version number|
|-v||Prints verbose output|
- Use the following command to install or upgrade an.rpm package using RPM: rpm -i package-file rpm -U package-file rpm -ivh package-file The flags -i for install, U for upgrade, v for verbose, and h for hash are all available (this option displays theas a progress bar for the operation).
- In this example, the flags v and h are both optional.
- If you want to search for a package using RPM, run the following command: rpm -q query-options is an abbreviation for query-options.
- package the command ″rpm -qa vim-enhanced″ Option a searches for all of the packages that have been installed on the system.
To remove a package from your computer, use the following command: the following commands: rpm —erase options package-name the following commands:rpm —evh vim-enhanced the following commands: bring everything to a close Package management is a task that is performed by every system.YUM and RPM are software package management tools that make it easy to install, update, uninstall, and track software packages on Red Hat Enterprise Linux machines.
Which Linux uses rpm?
Despite the fact that it was originally designed for use with Red Hat Linux, RPM is currently found in a variety of Linux distributions, including Fedora, CentOS, OpenSUSE, OpenMandriva, and Oracle Linux. Some other operating systems, such as Novell NetWare (as of version 6.5 SP3), IBM AIX (as of version 4), IBM I and ArcaOS, have also had their versions of the software migrated to them.
Is Ubuntu DEB or RPM?
. RPM files are packages that are used by Red Hat and Red Hat-derived distributions. RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager (e.g. Fedora, RHEL, CentOS).. DEB packages, which are the package type used by Debian and Debian-derived distributions, are included within deb files (e.g. Debian, Ubuntu).
How do I know if my Linux is RPM or Deb?
Debian packages are available if you are running an Ubuntu-based operating system (or any variant of Ubuntu-based operating system such as Kali or Mint). When using Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, and other similar operating systems, rpm is used.
Where are RPM files stored in Linux?
The majority of RPM-related files are stored in the /var/lib/rpm/ directory on the server. More information about RPM may be found in Chapter 10, Package Management with RPM, which contains a number of examples. Files utilized by the Package Updater, including RPM header information for the system, may be found in the /var/cache/yum/ directory of your home directory.
What is FTP in Linux?
When transferring data to and from a distant network, FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is utilized as the protocol to do so…. In contrast, the ftp command comes in handy when working on a server that does not have a graphical user interface and you need to transfer data through FTP from one server to another.
What is RPM Uvh?
Rpm -Uvh -.rpm or rpm -ivh -.rpm are also valid options. When using the -U option, you are doing an upgrade procedure, which implies that you are uninstalling any earlier versions of the same package as well as any obsoleted packages and replacing them with the current version of the package.
Can I use RPM on Ubuntu?
A large number of deb packages are available in the Ubuntu repository, which may be installed either through the Ubuntu Software Center or by using the apt command-line application. … Thanks to a program known as alien, we can install an RPM file on Ubuntu or convert an RPM package file into a Debian package file with no effort.
How do I run an RPM in Linux?
The following is an illustration of how to make advantage of RPM:
- Enter the workstation as root, or use the su command on a different workstation to change to the root user, and then follow the on-screen instructions.
- Obtain the package that you intend to install by clicking on the Download button. …
- When prompted, type the following command: rpm -i DeathStar0 42b.rpm
- to install the package, type the following command at the prompt: rpm -i DeathStar0 42b.rpm
17 мар. 2020 г.
Which is better DEB or RPM?
- A lot of people compare installing software using apt-get to installing software with rpm -i, and as a result, they believe DEB is superior.
- But this has absolutely nothing to do with the DEB file extension.
- The true contrast is between dpkg and rpm, and aptitude / apt-* vs zypper / yum, among other things.
- From the perspective of the user, there isn’t much of a difference between these two tools.
Is Red Hat Linux debian based?
RedHat is a commercial Linux distribution that is the most extensively utilized on a large number of servers all over the world. Debian, on the other hand, is a Linux distribution that is extremely reliable and that has a big number of packages in its repository, which is known as the Debian repository.
How do I know if my OS is Debian?
How to find out what version of Debian you’re running: Terminal
- Your version will be displayed on the next line. …
- Lsb release is a command that releases memory.
- You may receive an overview of all system information, including your Debian version, by typing ″lsb release -d″ into your terminal.
- When you first run the software, you will be able to view your current Debian version under ″Operating system″ in the ″Computer″ section.
15 окт. 2020 г.
Is Kali a deb or rpm?
The fact that Kali Linux is based on Debian means that you will be unable to install RPM packages directly using the apt or dpkg package managers.
How do I copy an RPM in Linux?
You may use rpm –repackage to save a copy of the package as it is now installed before upgrading or uninstalling it. It will store the RPMs in the appropriate location, which is either /var/tmp or /var/spool/repackage, depending on your settings.
How do I download an RPM package in Linux?
- Step 1: Download the RPM Installation File
- Step 2: Install the RPM Installation File on your Linux system. Using the RPM command, you may install an RPM file. Yum may be used to install an RPM file. Fedora may be configured to use RPM packages.
- Delete the RPM package
- Examine the RPM dependencies
- The Repository contains RPM packages that may be downloaded.
3 мар. 2019 г.
How do I get yum on Linux?
Custom YUM Repository
- Installing ″createrepo″ is the first step. In order to establish a Custom YUM Repository, we must install extra software on our cloud server, which is named ″createrepo.″ .
- Step 2: Create a directory for the repository..
- Step 3: Copy the RPM files into the repository directory. .
- Step 4: Execute the command ″createrepo″.
- Step 5: Create the YUM Repository Configuration file
1 окт. 2013 г.
Linux Package Management with Yum, RPM, Apt, Dpkg, Aptitude and Zypper
- Recently, the Linux Foundation announced the introduction of the LFCS certification (Linux Foundation Certified Sysadmin), which provides an exciting opportunity for system administrators all over the world to demonstrate, through a performance-based exam, that they are capable of providing successful overall operational support for Linux systems.
- A Linux Foundation Certified Sysadmin possesses the knowledge and skills necessary to provide effective system support, first-level troubleshooting and monitoring, and eventually issue escalation to engineering support teams when necessary.
- Take a look at the video below, which provides an overview of the Linux Foundation Certification Program.
- This post is the ninth of a ten-part series on Linux Package Management.
In this article, we will lead you through the Linux Package Management concepts that are necessary for the LFCS certification test.
- In a nutshell, package management is a way of installing and managing (which may include upgrading and sometimes uninstalling) software on a computer’s operating system or network.
- When Linux was first released, applications were solely available as source code, which included all of the necessary man pages, configuration files, and other supporting documentation.
- Nowadays, the majority of Linux distributions employ by default pre-built programs or groups of programs known as packages, which are offered to users as ready for installation on the distribution in which they were purchased.
- However, one of the many beauties of Linux is the ability to acquire the source code of a program so that it may be examined, improved, and produced from the ground up.
How package management systems work
When a particular package requires a certain resource, such as a shared library or another package, this is referred to as having a reliance on that resource or another package. The majority of current package management systems include some form of dependency resolution to ensure that when a package is installed, all of the dependencies that it requires are installed as well.
- In today’s world, almost all of the software required to run a contemporary Linux system can be found on the Internet.
- There are two ways to get it: either from the distribution vendor through central repositories (which can contain several thousand packages, each of which has been specifically built, tested, and maintained for the distribution) or from the vendor through open source code that can be downloaded and installed manually.
- In order to avoid package incompatibilities across multiple distribution families (Debian: *.deb / CentOS: *.rpm / openSUSE: *.rpm created specifically for openSUSE), a package meant for one distribution will not be compatible with another distribution.
- The majority of distributions, on the other hand, are likely to fit into one of the three distribution families that are covered by the LFCS accreditation.
High and low-level package tools
- The task of package management is complicated, and you must be aware of the many different types of utilities available to you: low-level tools (which handle in the backend the actual installation, upgrade, and removal of package files), and high-level tools (which are in charge of ensuring that the tasks of dependency resolution and metadata searching -″data about the data″- are carried out effectively).
|DISTRIBUTION||LOW-LEVEL TOOL||HIGH-LEVEL TOOL|
|Debian and derivatives||dpkg||apt-get / aptitude|
- Let’s look at the descriptions of the low-level and high-level tools, respectively.
- dpkg is a package manager for Debian-based systems that is designed to be used at the lowest possible level.
- It has the ability to install, uninstall, offer information on, and produce *.deb packages, but it does not have the ability to automatically obtain and install the dependencies of those packages.
- Continue reading: 15 dpkg Command Examples An apt-get command is a high-level package manager for Debian and variants that provides a straightforward way to get and install packages from numerous sources, including dependency resolution, using the command line.
Instead of working directly with *.deb files like dpkg, apt-get works using the package’s real name, which is different from dpkg.Continue reading: 25 apt-get Exemplifications of Commands In addition to being a high-level package manager for Debian-based systems, aptitude may be used to execute administration chores (such as installing, updating, and deleting packages, as well as managing dependency resolution automatically) in a quick and straightforward manner.It provides the same functionality as apt-get as well as some extra features, such as the ability to access several versions of a package at the same time.rpm is a package management system that is used by Linux Standard Base (LSB)-compliant distributions to manage packages at the lowest level of abstraction.
- It is similar to dpkg in that it can query, install, verify, update, and delete packages; however, Fedora-based distributions such as RHEL and CentOS are more likely to make use of it.
- Continue reading: 20 rpm Command Examples The yum package manager extends the capability of RPM-based systems by enabling automated updates and package management with dependency management.
- yum is a high-level utility that interacts with repositories, similar to apt-get or aptitude.
- Continue reading: 20 yum Command Examples
Common Usage of Low-Level Tools
The following are the tasks that you will perform with low-level tools on a regular basis:
1. Installing a package from a compiled (*.deb or *.rpm) file
- The disadvantage of using this way of installation is that no dependency resolution is given.
- When a package is not accessible in the distribution’s repositories and, as a result, cannot be downloaded and installed using a high-level tool, you will most likely opt to install it from a built file instead.
- Because low-level tools do not do dependency resolution, if we attempt to install a package that has dependencies that are not met, the tool will quit with an error.
- Please do not attempt to install on CentOS a *.rpm file that was built for openSUSE, or vice versa!
dpkg -i file.deb dpkg -i file.rpm Note: Do not attempt to install on CentOS a *.rpm file that was produced for openSUSE, or vice versa!
2. Upgrading a package from a compiled file
As previously stated, you will only manually upgrade an installed package if the program is not accessible in the central repository. dpkg -i file.deb rpm -U file.rpm rpm -U file.rpm
3. Listing installed packages
- When you first get your hands on a fully functional system, it’s likely that you’ll want to know exactly what packages have been installed.
- dpkg -l rpm -qa dpkg -l rpm -qa grep is a command that can be used to determine whether or not a specific package is installed.
- This was demonstrated in Part 1 of this series, modify files in Linux – Part 1 of this series.
- Consider the situation where we need to determine whether the package mysql-common is installed on an Ubuntu system.
MySQL-common is found with the command dpkg -l |grep mysql-common Another method of determining whether or not a package has been installed.package name rpm -q package name dpkg -status package name Take, for example, the task of discovering whether or not the package sysdig is installed on our system.rpm -qa |
- grep sysdig |
- grep sysdig
4. Finding out which package installed a file
Dpkg -search file name rpm -qf file name dpkg -search file name rpm -qf /usr/share/cracklib/pw dict.hwm (for example) will tell you which package installed pw dict.hwm.
Common Usage of High-Level Tools
The following are the tasks that you will perform with high-level tools on a regular basis.
1. Searching for a package
- In this case, aptitude update will update the list of currently available packages, and aptitude search will carry out the actual search for package name.
- aptitude search package name && aptitude update package name When using the search all option, yum will look for package name not only in package names, but also in package descriptions, as well as in other package metadata.
- the command yum search package name the command yum search all package name yum whatprovides ″*/package name″ is a command that offers information about a package.
- Consider the possibility that we require a file with the name sysdig.
Let’s go for a run to find out what package we’ll have to install.yum whatprovides ″*/sysdig″ yum whatprovides ″*/sysdig″ whatprovides instructs yum to search for a file in the package that will provide a file that matches the regular expression specified above.the commands zypper refresh followed by the command zypper search package name
2. Installing a package from a repository
- After the package management has resolved all dependencies, you may be requested to confirm the installation of a package while it is in the process of being installed.
- Take note that while executing update or refresh (depending on which package manager is being used) is not technically mandatory, keeping installed packages up to date is a recommended system administration practice for a variety of security and dependability reasons.
- aptitude update && aptitude install package name are two different things.
- yum update package name followed by yum install package name zypper refresh && zypper install package name are two commands that can be used.
3. Removing a package
- The option delete will uninstall the package while keeping the configuration files in place, whereas the option purge will completely eliminate all traces of the application from your computer’s hard drive.
- aptitude delete / purge package name is a command line option.
- yum erase package name -Notice the minus sign in front of the package name that will be uninstalled; this indicates that the package will be removed.
- the command zypper uninstall -package name is used in openSUSE.
As a default, most (if not all) package managers will inquire as to your willingness to proceed with the uninstallation before actually carrying it through.As a result, pay close attention to the messages displayed on the screen to prevent getting yourself into trouble!
4. Displaying information about a package
The information about the birthday package will be shown if you run the following command. birthday yum information aptitude show birthday zypper information about birthday
- As a system administrator, you can’t afford to ignore package management since it is so important.
- When the need arises, you should be prepared to employ the instruments discussed in this essay without hesitation.
- Hopefully, it will be of use to you in your preparation for the LFCS test as well as your everyday activities.
- Please feel free to leave any comments or questions in the section below.
As soon as we receive your message, we will do our best to respond as quickly as possible.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 are examples of Red Hat Enterprise Linux distributions.
- What is the procedure for installing or upgrading an RPM package?
- Is it possible to update a rpm package?
- The RPM package that you are attempting to install must first be present on your system in order for the installation to be successful.
- In our Downloads section of the Red Hat Customer Portal, you can find all of the RPM packages that are included with our products.
- There are two methods for locating a package that you are interested in purchasing.
- Package names may be found by searching for them.
Select RPM Package Search from the Downloads menu.A package search may be performed on any product, but it can also be restricted to a single product using the Package Search filter option.Browse By Product From the Downloads menu, choose the product that you are interested in and then click on the ‘Packages’ option to the right.For example, packages for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server.
- Please keep in mind that to see or download packages, you must have an active product subscription that includes entitlements to the package.
- The following solution provides further information on downloading packages from the Customer Portal: Instructions on how to manually download a rpm package from the Customer Portal.
Installing or Upgrading
- The rpm command has two primary options that are used to install or update RPM packages: install and upgrade. Installing a new package is accomplished through the usage of the -i option. It is recommended that you use this option for all kernel installs and upgrades just in case.
- -U is used to update an RPM package, but it will also install a package if the package does not already exist in the RPM database.
- The RPM man page has information on how to use it as well as other options.
- From the command line, enter the command man rpm.
- The following is some additional information about the -i and -U flags: OPTIONS FOR INSTALLATION AND UPGRADE The command rpmPACKAGE FILE is the generic form of the rpm install command.
- This performs the installation of a new package.
The command rpmPACKAGE FILE is the generic form of the rpm upgrade command.A package is installed or upgraded if it is already installed in a previous version of the package manager.This is the same as installing the package, except that when the new package is installed, all previous versions of the package are uninstalled.Examples: Please keep in mind that the packages in these examples are assumed to be in a directory on your system.
- The RPM instructions listed below are run in the current working directory, which is where the new RPM files are located.
- The -i option is used to install an RPM package, which stands for install RPM package.
- When installing a kernel RPM, as previously stated, you should use the —kernel-rpm-install parameter.
- As a backup in case the new kernel does not boot, you will want to keep your old kernel installed, even only temporarily, in case the new kernel does not boot.
- In this example, we first use the ls command to find out the names of the new RPM packages that have been installed.
Afterwards, we run a query against the RPM database to determine whether kernel packages are already there.rpm -q is a command that does not need you to provide the version number in the query.With the following command: rpm -ivh, we may install the RPM package on our system.It is important to note that the -v option will display verbose output, while the -h option will display hash marks, which signify the progress of the RPM update.Finally, we perform another RPM query to ensure that the package will be accessible when it is needed.
- Kernel-2.4.21-4.0.1.EL Kernel-2.4.21-4.0.2.EL Kernel-2.4.21-15.0.2.EL Kernel-2.4.21-15.0.2.EL Kernel 2.4.21-15.0.2.EL Kernel-2.4.21-15.0.2.EL Kernel-2.4.21-15.0.2.EL Kernel-2.4.21-4.0.1.EL Kernel-2.4.21-15.0.2.EL Kernel-2.4.21-15 1:kernel rpm -ivh kernel-smp-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL.i686.rpm kernel-smp-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL.i686.rpm kernel-smp-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL.i686.rpm kernel-smp-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL.i686.rpm rpm -q kernel-smp kernel-2.4.21-4.0.1.EL kernel-2.4.21-15.0.2.EL kernel-2.421-15.0.3.EL kernel-smp kernel-2.4.21-4.0.1.EL kernel-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL kernel-smp-2.4.21-4.0.1.EL kernel-smp-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL kernel-smp-2.4.21-4.0.1.EL kernel-smp-2.4.21-15.0.3.EL kernel- The -U option is used to update an RPM package, which stands for upgrade.
- In this example, the ls command is used to check the new package name that was created.
- Then, using the command rpm -q, we will check to see if the package we wish to install is already present in the RPM database.
- rpm -Uvh is the command that we use to do the RPM installation following the previous step.
It is important to note that the -v option will display verbose output, while the -h option will display hash marks, which signify the progress of the RPM update.Finally, we perform another RPM query to ensure that the package will be accessible when it is needed.
- Ls mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3.i386.rpm rpm -qrpm -q mod ssl mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3.i386.rpm -Uvhmod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3.i386.rpm rpm -qrpm -q mod ssl mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3.i386.
- 1: 2: mod ssl rpm -qrpm -q mod ssl mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3 mod ssl rpm -q mod ssl mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3 mod ssl mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3 mod ssl mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent.3 mod ssl mod Due to dependency concerns, both the and mod ssl were required to be installed at the same time to function properly.
- If you try to install one without the other, you will receive an error message that looks something like this: rpm -Uvherror: rpm has encountered an error.
= 2.0.46-32.ent is required by (installed) mod ssl-2.0.46-32.ent, however it failed to load due to a dependency failure Because of Red Hat’s rapid publication initiative, a large library of solutions that Red Hat developers have developed while helping our customers is available to them immediately.These articles may be given in their raw and unedited form in order to provide you with the information you want as soon as it becomes available.
Linux kernel licensing rules — The Linux Kernel documentation
- It is supplied under the provisions of the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPL-2.0), as published by the Free Software Foundation, and is included in the COPYING file.
- The Linux Kernel is not distributed under any other license.
- This documentation file is not intended to replace the COPYING file, but rather to offer a description of how each source file should be annotated in order to make the license terms under which it is controlled plain and unambiguous.
- However, individual source files can have a different license, which is necessary to be compliant with the GPL-2.0: GPL-1.0+: GNU General Public License v1.0 or later GPL-1.0+: GNU General Public License v1.0 or later GPL-2.0 GPL-2.0+: The GNU General Public License version 2.0 or later is required.
LGPL-2.0: GNU Library General Public License version 2 (only available in English).LGPL-2.0+: The GNU Library General Public License version 2 or later is required.LGPL-2.1: GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.1 is the sole license available.LGPL-2.1+: The GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.1 or later is required.
- Aside from that, individual files can be distributed under a dual license, for example, under one of the compatible GPL variations and, in addition, under a permissive license such as BSD, MIT, or the Apache License 2.0.
- A specific instance is represented by the User-space API (UAPI) header files, which explain the interface between user-space programs and the kernel.
- Following the advice of a comment in the kernel’s COPYING file, the syscall interface is a clear boundary, and any program that utilizes it to interact with the kernel does not fall inside the scope of the GPL requirements.
- Because the UAPI headers must be includeable into any source files that generate an executable that runs on the Linux kernel, the exception must be documented using a particular licensing statement that is unique to the Linux kernel.
- An easy approach to convey the licensing of a source file is to include the corresponding boilerplate text in the file’s first remark, which is the most usual practice.
These ″boilerplates″ are difficult to check for tools that are used in the context of licensing compliance because of formatting, typos, and other issues.Using Software Package Data Exchange (SPDX) license IDs in each source file as a replacement to boilerplate text can save time and effort.Identifiers for the license under which the content of the file is submitted are machine parsable and accurate shorthands for the license under which the content of the file is donated.License IDs for SPDX products are controlled by the SPDX Workgroup at the Linux Foundation, and they have been agreed upon by partners from throughout the industry, as well as tool vendors and legal teams.For further details, please check The correct SPDX identifier must be present in all source files in order for the Linux kernel to function properly.
- It is detailed in detail in the section Licensing IDs how valid identifiers are utilized in the kernel.
- These identifiers were obtained from the official SPDX license list, which included included the license wording.
License identifier syntax¶
Of kernel files, the SPDX licensing identification must be placed at the beginning of the first available line in a file that can include a remark. This is the first line of the vast majority of files, with the exception of scripts, which require the inclusion of the ‘!PATH TO INTERPRETER’ in the first line. The SPDX identification is placed in the second line of the scripts that use it.
- Of kernel files, the SPDX licensing identification should be placed at the beginning of the first available line in a file that can include a remark.
- This is the first line of the vast majority of files, with the exception of scripts, which require the ‘!PATH TO INTERPRETER’ to be the first line of the file in order to function.
- The SPDX identification is placed in the second line of the scripts that use this format.
An SPDX short form license identification listed on the SPDX License List is represented by the letter ″A,″ or a combination of two SPDX short form licensing IDs separated by the word ″WITH,″ in the event that a license exception applies to the license.When several licenses are applicable, an expression is composed of the keywords ″AND,″ ″OR,″ which are used to separate sub-expressions and are enclosed by the symbols ″(,″ ″)″.In the case of licenses such as the GPL that provide the ‘or later’ option, license IDs are created by adding a plus sign (+) to indicate that the ‘or later’ option is present./ SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ (GNU General Public License)./ SPDX-License-Identifier: LGPL-2.1+ / SPDX-License-Identifier: LGPL-2.1+ When a license modification is required, the conjunction WITH should be used.
- For example, the UAPI files in the Linux kernel contain the expression: / SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note / SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 / SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ (GNU General Public License).
- WITH THE USE OF Linux-syscall-note Other examples of utilizing WITH exceptions that may be found in the kernel include the following: With the mif-exception, the SPDX-License-Identifier is GPL-2.0.
- With the GPL-2.0+ license with GCC exception 2.0, the SPDX license identifier is GPL-2.0+ WITH GCC exception 2.0.
- Exceptions can only be used in conjunction with certain License IDs.
- The valid License IDs are given in the tags of the exception text file, which may be found in the exception text file.
- To learn more about exceptions, go to the section Exceptions in the chapter License identifiers.
- If the file is dual licensed and just one license is to be picked, the OR operator should be used.
- Some dtsi files, for example, are available under two different licenses: / SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 OR BSD-3-Clause (whichever is applicable).
- Examples of licensing phrases in dual licensed files taken from the kernel include: The GNU General Public License version 2.0 or the MIT license version 2.0.
- The SPDX-License-Identifier is GNU General Public License version 2.0 or the MIT license version 2.0.
- The GPL version 2.0 or Apache version 2.0 are the SPDX license identifiers; the MPL version 1.1 is the SPDX license identifier; and the SPDX license identifier is GPL version 2.0 or Apache version 2.0.
The SPDX license identifier is the GPL version 2.0 or Apache version 2.0.(GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) Alternative License: MIT / SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-1.0+ It is recommended to use OR BSD-3-Clause OR OpenSSL AND when a file is distributed under several licenses, all of whose conditions apply while using the file.Take, for example, the case when code is inherited from another project and permission has been granted to include it in the kernel, but the original licensing terms must be maintained: / SPDX-License-Identifier (SPDX-License-Identifier): (GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) IN ADDITION TO MIT / SPDX-Licensing-Identifier: GPL-1.0+ AND LGPL 2.1+ is another example of a situation where both sets of license requirements must be adhered to:
The licenses that are currently in use, as well as the licenses for code that has been added to the kernel, may be divided into the following categories:
- Licenses that are preferred include: Because they are extensively used and generally compatible, these licenses should be utilized whenever feasible because they are commonly recognized to be completely compatible. These licenses are accessible from the directory: in the kernel source tree, which may be found in the directory:. The whole license text and Metatags are contained within the files in this directory. The file names are identical to the SPDX license identifier, which is to be used in source files to identify the license for that file. Examples: LICENSES/preferred/GPL-2.0 This file contains the GPL version 2 license text as well as the necessary metatags: It includes the MIT license text as well as the necessary metatags. Metatags: A license file must have the following meta tags in order to be valid: License Identifiers that are valid inside the project to reference this particular license text are declared in the Valid-License-Identifiers section, which may include one or more lines. Normally, only one valid identification is required, however for licenses with the ‘or later’ options, two valid IDs are required.
- A unique identifier for the SPDX page that carries further information about the license.
- Usage-Guidance: This is a freeform paragraph that provides usage advice. For the SPDX licensing identifiers, the text must provide accurate examples that correspond to the way they should be entered into source files according to the License identifier syntax standards.
- License-Content: All text after this tag is processed as if it were the original license text.
Examples of file formats include: GPL-2.0 is the Valid-License-Identifier.GPL-2.0+ is the valid license identifier.SPDX-URL:Usage-Guide: Put one of the following SPDX tag/value combinations into a remark in your source code, following the placement standards provided in the licensing rules documentation, in order to make use of this license.SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 should be used exclusively for ‘GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2 only’.’GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2 or any later version’ should be represented by the license identifier SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+.
- License-Text: The full text of the license MIT is the SPDX-License-Identifier.
- SPDX-URL:Usage-Guide: This license must be referenced in source code by inserting the following SPDX tag/value pair inside a remark according to the placement requirements specified in the licensing rules documentation.
- SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT License-Text: Complete license text SPDX-License-Identifier:
Licenses that are not encouraged include: These licenses should only be used for code that already exists or for code that has been imported from another project.These licenses are accessible from the directory: in the kernel source tree, which may be found in the directory:.The whole license text and Metatags are contained within the files in this directory.The file names are identical to the SPDX license identifier, which is to be used in source files to identify the license for that file.Examples: This file contains the license wording from the Internet Systems Consortium as well as the appropriate metatags: This file contains the ZLIB license text as well as the necessary metatags.
- Metatags: The metatag criteria for ‘other’ licenses are the same as the requirements for Preferred licenses, with the exception of the kind of license.
- An example of a file format is: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-Valid-License-Identifier: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL: ISC SPDX-URL Usage-Guide: The usage of this license in the kernel for new code is discouraged, and it should only be used for importing code from an already existing project, according to the authors.
- This license must be referenced in source code by inserting the following SPDX tag/value pair inside a remark according to the placement requirements specified in the licensing rules documentation.
- SPDX-License-Identifier: ISC License-Text: Complete license text SPDX-License-Identifier: ISC
- Exceptions: Some licenses can be updated to include exceptions that allow specific rights that were not previously granted under the original license. In the kernel source tree, these exceptions may be found in the directory: in the exceptions directory. The files in this directory include the whole exception text as well as the Exception Metatags that are necessary. Examples: LICENSES/exceptions/Linux-syscall-note In this file, you will find the Linux syscall exception that is documented in the COPYING file of the Linux kernel and that is used for UAPI header files. e.g. LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 LICENSES/exceptions/GCC-exception-2.0 This file contains the GCC ‘linking exception,’ which allows you to link any binary, regardless of its licensing, against the built version of a file that has been designated with this exception. Creating executables from source code that is not compliant with the GPL is essential in order to create runnable executables. Metatags with an exception: The following meta tags are required to be present in any exception file: A single exception identifier that may be used in conjunction with SPDX licensing IDs is designated as SPDX-Exception-Identifier.
- SPDX-URL: The URL of the SPDX page that gives extra information about the exception.
- A comma-delimited list of SPDX license identifiers for which the exception can be invoked is specified by the SPDX-Licenses parameter.
- Usage-Guidance: Freeform text to be used as use guidance. It is necessary to follow the text with accurate examples of SPDX licensing IDs, which should be included in source files in accordance with the License identifier syntax standards.
- Exception-Text: All text after this tag is processed as if it were the original exception text.
Examples of file formats include: Linux-syscall-note is the SPDX-Exception-Identifier.SPDX-URL:SPDX-Licenses: GPL-2.0, GPL-2.0+, GPL-1.0+, LGPL-2.0, LGPL-2.0+, LGPL-2.1, LGPL-2.1+, SPDX-URL:SPDX-Licenses: GPL-2.0, GPL-2.0+, SPDX-URL:SPDX-Licenses: GPL-2.0, GPL-2.0+, SPDX-URL:SPDX-L Usage-Guidance: This exception, in conjunction with one of the aforementioned SPDX-Licenses, is used to label user-space API (uapi) header files, allowing them to be used in non-GPL compliant user-space application code that uses the API.To make use of this exception, include it in the SPDX-Licenses tag using the term WITH before one of the identifiers in the tag: SPDX-License-Identifier: WITH Linux-syscall-note Exception-Text: The complete text of the exception GCC-exception-2.0 is the SPDX-Exception-Identifier.SPDX-URL:SPDX-Licenses: GPL-2.0, GPL-2.0+ SPDX-URL:SPDX-Licenses: GPL-2.0, GPL-2.0+ Usage-Guidance: If you’re importing code from the GCC runtime library, you’ll need to utilize the ″GCC Runtime Library exception 2.0″ in conjunction with one of the SPDX-Licenses listed above.Use this exception by prefixing one of its identifiers with the keyword WITH in the SPDX-Licenses tag: SPDX-License-Identifier: WITH GCC-exception-2.0 Exception-Text: The full text of the exception.
LICENSE subdirectory must have a file matching to each SPDX license identification and exception, which must be located in the same directory. Checkpatch.pl and other tools require this in order to be able to verify the patch, as well as having the licenses available to read and extract directly from the source code, as advocated by different FOSS groups, such as the FSFE REUSE effort.
20 Practical Examples of RPM Commands in Linux
A default open source and most popular package management software for Red Hat based systems such as CentOS, RHEL, and others is RPM (Red Hat Package Manager) (RHEL, CentOS and Fedora).The application enables system administrators and users to install, update, and remove system software packages in Unix/Linux operating systems, as well as query, validate, and manage system software packages.The RPM file, formerly known as the.rpm file, is a constructed software package that contains the software applications and libraries required by the packages.This tool is only compatible with packages that have been produced in the.rpm format.This article contains some interesting 20 RPM command examples that you can find useful in your own projects.
- You can manage to install, update, and delete packages on your Linux systems with the use of the rpm command.
Some Facts about RPM (RedHat Package Manager)
- RPM is free and provided under the GPL (General Public License)
- RPM stores information about all of the installed packages in the /var/lib/rpm database directory
- RPM is a package management system.
- RPM is the sole means to install packages on Linux systems
- if you’ve installed packages using source code, rpm will not be able to handle it.
- When dealing with.rpm files, which include the real information about the packages such as: what it is, where it came from, dependency information, and version information, among other things, RPM is used.
There are five basic modes for RPM command
- Install: It is used to install any RPM package that has been downloaded.
- Remove: This command is used to delete, uninstall, or uninstall any RPM package.
- Upgrade: It is used to bring an existing RPM package up to date.
- Verify is a command that is used to verify RPM packages.
- Query: It is used to query any RPM package that is installed
Where to find RPM packages
The following is a list of rpm sites from where you may locate and download all RPM packages.
- Examples of the YUM command in Linux
- Examples of the Wget command in Linux
- The 30 Most Useful Linux Commands for System Administrators
Please keep in mind that while installing packages on Linux, you must be logged in as the root user. Only with root access can you manage rpm commands and their associated arguments.
1. How to Check an RPM Signature Package
Make a point of checking the PGP signature of packages before installing them on your Linux computers to ensure that their integrity and origin are correct.To verify the signature of a package named pidgin, use the following command with the –checksig (check signature) option: [rpm -checksig pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm]rpm -checksig pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm the pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm package has the following information: rsa sha1 (md5), pgp md5 OK
2. How to Install an RPM Package
If you want to install a rpm software package, use the following command with the -i flag included. For example, to install a rpm package named pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm, type [pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm on the command line. -ivh pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm Getting Ready. 1:pidgin
RPM command and options
- -i: install a package
- -v: make the output more verbose for a more aesthetically pleasing presentation
- -h: report hash marks while the package archive is unpacked
3. How to check dependencies of RPM Package before Installing
Consider the following scenario: you want to do a dependency check before installing or updating a program.For example, the following command may be used to determine whether the BitTorrent-5.2.2-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm package is dependent on any other packages.It will provide a list of the packages that are dependent on the current package.]rpm -qpR ]rpm -qpR Python2.4 is installed using the rpm package BitTorrent-5.2.2-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm in /usr/bin/python2.4 python >= 2.3 python(abi) = 2.4 python-crypto >= 2.0 python-psyco python-twisted >= 2.0 python-zopeinterface rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) = 2.6 rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) = 2.6 rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) = 2.6
RPM command and options
- -q: Inquire about a bundle
- -p: Displays a list of the capabilities provided by this package
- -R: Display a list of the capabilities on which this package relies.
4. How to Install a RPM Package Without Dependencies
Alternatively, if you are confident that all required packages are already installed and RPM is simply being foolish, you may disregard those dependencies by specifying the –nodeps (no dependencies check) option before installing the package.rpm -ivh -nodeps -ivh -nodeps BitTorrent-5.2.2-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm Preparing.1:BitTorrent is being used.The command above will aggressively install the rpm package by disregarding dependencies problems; but, if certain dependent files are missing, the application will not function at all until those files are added to the system.
5. How to check an Installed RPM Package
When the -q option is used in conjunction with a package name, it will indicate if a rpm has been installed or not. ] Download BitTorrent BitTorrent-5.2.2-1.noarch with the command rpm -q BitTorrent
6. How to List all files of an installed RPM package
Use the -ql (query list) option with the rpm command to see all of the files contained within an installed rpm package.] rpm -ql rpm -ql rpm -ql The BitTorrent executables are located at /usr/bin/bittorrent /usr/bin/bittorrent-console /usr/bin/bittorrent-curses /usr/bin/bittorrent-tracker /usr/bin/changetracker-console /usr/bin/launchmany-console and /usr/bin/launchmany-curses /usr/bin/maket
7. How to List Recently Installed RPM Packages
The following rpm command, when used with the -qa (query all) option, will show all of the rpm packages that have been recently installed.] The following command is used to install BitTorrent 5.2.1.noarch: rpm —qa —last BitTorrent 5.2.1.noarch Tuesday, December 4, 2012, 5:14:06 p.m.I686 BDT pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686 BDT pidgin Tuesday, December 4, 2012, 5:13:51 p.m.BDT cyrus-sasl-devel-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 cyrus-sasl-devel-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 Tuesday, December 4, 2012, 4:43:06 p.m.BDT cyrus-sasl-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 cyrus-sasl-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 Tuesday, December 4, 2012 04:43:05 p.m.
- BDT cyrus-sasl-md5-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 cyrus-sasl-md5-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 Tuesday, December 4, 2012, 4:43:04 p.m.
- BDT cyrus-sasl-plain-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 cyrus-sasl-plain-2.1.23-13.el6 3.1.i686 Tuesday, December 4, 2012, 4:43:03 p.m.
8. How to List All Installed RPM Packages
Type the following command to see a list of all the names of the packages that have been installed on your Linux system.] rpm -qa is an abbreviation for RPM Quality Assurance. initscripts-9.03.31-2.el6.centos.i686 Thunderbird-17.0-1.el6.remi.i686 polkit-desktop-policy-0.96-2.el6 0.1.noarch polkit-desktop-policy-0.96-2.el6 0.1.noarch polkit-desktop-policy-0.96-2.el6 0.1.noarch
9. How to Upgrade a RPM Package
Upgrade any RPM package with the ″–U″ (upgrade) option, which is used when upgrading any RPM package.In addition to upgrading to the most recent version of any package, this option will also keep a backup of the older package in case the newly upgraded package does not function properly.This allows the previously installed package to be used again in the event that the newly upgraded package does not function properly after it has been upgraded.[rpm -Uvh nx-3.5.0-2.el6.centos.i686.rpm ]rpm -Uvh nx-3.5.0-2.el6.centos.i686.rpm Getting Ready.1:nx
10. How to Remove a RPM Package
We may use the package name nx to uninstall an RPM package, rather than the original package name nx-3.5.0-2.el6.centos.i686.rpm, to uninstall a nx-3.5.0-2.el6.centos.i686.rpm package. Packages can be removed with the -e (erase) command line option.]rpm -evv nx
11. How to Remove an RPM Package Without Dependencies
Nodeps (Do not check dependencies) is an option that is used to force the removal of the rpm package from the system. However, keep in mind that uninstalling a single program may cause other apps to stop operating. ] The following command: rpm —ev —nodeps vsftpd
12. How to Query a file that belongs which RPM Package
Consider the following scenario: you have a list of files and you want to determine which package contains these files. Using the -qf (query file) option, for example, the following program will show you that the file [rpm -qf /usr/bin/htpasswd] is owned by the package]rpm -qf /usr/bin/htpasswd
13. How to Query a Information of Installed RPM Package
Consider the following scenario: you have installed a rpm package and would want to know more about the package.The -qi (query info) option will output all of the information about the installed package that is currently accessible.] rpm -qi vsftpd vsftpd vsftpd is the name of the program.Relocations are a common occurrence (not relocatable) 2.2.2 is the current version.CentOS is the vendor.
- 11.el6 is the version of the software that was released.
- Date of construction: Friday, June 22, 2012 at 1:54:24 p.m.
- BDT Installed on: Monday, Septem