How To Make A Python Package?

To create a package in Python, we need to follow these three simple steps:

  • First, we create a directory and give it a package name, preferably related to its operation.
  • Then we put the classes and the required functions in it.
  • Finally we create an file inside the directory, to let Python know that the directory is a package.
  • Choose Your API. The first real step into turning your code into a package,is deciding how users should use it — and make it importable.

    How to create a simple package in Python?

    It doesn’t bothers Python. Create a directory and include a file in it to tell Python that the current directory is a package. Include other sub-packages or files you want. Next, access them with the valid import statements. Let’s create a simple package that has the following structure.

    How to add a package to a directory in Python?

    It doesn’t bothers Python. Create a directory and include a file in it to tell Python that the current directory is a package. Include other sub-packages or files you want. Next, access them with the valid import statements.

    How to create a package named myPackage in Python?

    Let’s create a package named mypackage, using the following steps: Create a new folder named D:\MyApp. Inside MyApp, create a subfolder with the name ‘mypackage’. Create an empty file in the mypackage folder. Using a Python-aware editor like IDLE, create modules and with the following code: That’s it.

    How do I write code inside a Python package?

    You can write code inside or leave it as blank as your wish. It doesn’t bothers Python. Create a directory and include a file in it to tell Python that the current directory is a package.

    How to locally develop a Python package?

  • Test PyPi. The package that we used in this tutorial was an extremely simple module — basic mathematical operations of addition,subtraction,multiplication and division.
  • Advanced Meta Information. The meta information we used in the file was very basic.
  • Look at other repositories.
  • Create and Access a Python Package

    1. Packages are a method of organizing a large number of packages and modules, resulting in a well-organized structure of data sets, with directories and modules being easily accessible.
    2. In the same way as separate disks and folders in an operating system assist us in keeping data, packages assist us in storing additional sub-packages and modules, which may then be utilized by the user when necessary.
    3. The Process of Creating and Exploring Packages To inform Python that a specific directory is a package, we create a file inside it.
    4. Once this file is created, the directory is considered a package, and we may construct further modules and sub-packages within it.
    5. file can either be left blank or programmed with the initialization code for the package, depending on your preferences.
    6. In order to build a Python package, we must follow these three basic steps:
    1. First, we establish a directory and give it a package name that is linked to the operation of the directory
    2. second, we create a directory and give it a package name that is relevant to the operation of the directory.
    3. Then we add the classes and the necessary functions to it
    4. last, we run it.
    5. Finally, we create file within the directory, which informs Python that the directory is a package.

    Creating a Package as an Example Look at the following example to see how a package is built. Let’s construct a package titled Cars and include three modules in it, namely BMW, Audi, and Nissan, to demonstrate how this works.

    1. We must first establish a directory with the name Cars, and then we must develop modules within that directory. In order to accomplish this, we must first create a file with the name and then populate its content by pasting the following code into it. the class Bmw is defined by the following formula: self.models = def out We then create a new file with the name and put the same type of code to it, but with different members. Models(self): print(‘These are the BMW models that are currently available’) for model in self.models: print(‘t percent s’percent model) self.models = def out
    2. class Audi: definit (self): self.models = def out
    3. Print(‘These are the possible models for Audi’) for model in self.models: print(‘t percent’percent model)Then we create another file with the name and add code to it that is identical to the previous one, but with a new set of variables. Self-Definition: self.models = def out for the Nissan class Last but not least, we write file, which has the following code: Models(self): print(‘These are the Nissan models that are currently available’) for model in self.models: print(″t percent s’percent model)
    4. This file will be placed within the Cars directory and may be left blank, or we can include the initialization code in it. This code will be placed inside the Cars directory. originating from BMW import BMW from Audi is being imported. Audi is an import from Nissan. Nissan Let us now put the package that we prepared to use. This may be accomplished by creating a file in the same directory as the Cars package and include the following code in it: ″ from the importation of automobiles importation of BMW from Cars Automobile importer Nissan ModBMW = Bmw()ModBMW.outModels()ModAudi = Audi()ModAudi.outModels()ModNissan = Nissan()ModNissan.outModels()ModBMW = Bmw()ModBMW.outModels()ModBMW = Bmw()ModBMW.outModels()ModBMW = Bmw()ModBMW.outModels()ModBMW = Bmw()ModBMW.outModels()Mod () There are several methods of gaining access to the packages. Take a look at this example and see if you can figure out what packages are associated with it and how we can get to it.
    1. Packages that include imports Assume that the automobiles and the brand directories are packaged together. In order for them to be considered a package, they must all have an file, which may be either empty or filled with initialization code. Let’s pretend that all of the automobile models are made out of modular components. The use of packages simplifies the process of importing any modules, either individually or in bulk. Let’s say we want to purchase a BMW i8. ‘import’ Cars would be the proper syntax for this phrase. Bmw.x5 When importing a package or sub-package or module, Python searches the whole tree of directories for the specific package and then continues in a logical manner as specified by the dot operator, as seen in the following example. If any module has a function that we wish to import, we must specify which module it is. As an example, if the a8 library has the method get buy(1) and we wish to import it, the syntax would be:import Cars. Audi.a8 Cars. Audi.a8.get buy(1) When utilizing only the import syntax, it is important to remember that the last attribute must be a subpackage or a module, and not a function or class name
    2. ‘from.import’ in Packages is an example of this requirement. For the time being, if we require the use of such a function, we must write the entire long line after first importing the parent package. We utilize the term ‘from’ to make this process a little more straightforward. To do this, we must first import the module into the database using the ‘from’ and ‘import’ commands: from Cars. Audi imports the a8 model. We can now call the function from any location by callinga8.get buy (1) There is an alternate route that is less time-consuming. In this case, we can simply import the function and utilize it anywhere we need it. To begin, import it using the following syntax: from Cars. Audi.a8 import get buy audi.a8 import get buy Now you may call the method from any location: Get the value of ‘from.import *’ in Packages using get buy(1). When we use the from.import syntax, we may import everything from submodules to classes, functions, and variables that are specified in the same module as the source code. An ImportError exception is thrown by the compiler if one of the attributes given in the import section is not declared in the package. It is possible that importing sub-modules will result in undesired side-effects, similar to those that occur when manually importing sub-modules. As a result, we may import many modules at the same time by utilizing the * syntax. The syntax is as follows: originating from Cars.Chevrolet import This will bring in everything from the sub-package, including modules, sub-modules, functions, and classes
    3. and
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    Create and Access a Python Package

    In this post, we will learn about the packages available in the Python programming language. A package is a tool that allows us to organize packages and modules into a logical hierarchy. Let’s have a look at how to generate Python packages.

    Creating Packages

    • We’ve included, a file within a directory that tells Python that the current directory is a package, in order to simplify the process. Whenever you wish to create a package, you must first include the file in the directory where the package will be stored. You have the option of writing code within or leaving it completely blank. Python is unconcerned about it. To build a package in Python, follow the procedures shown below. Making use of file to inform Python that the current directory is a package will be necessary.
    • Include any additional sub-packages or files that you desire
    • Then, using the valid import statements, gain access to them.
    • Let’s build a straightforward package using the following organizational structure.,, and are all included in the package (university).

    Start by navigating to any directory on your laptop or desktop and creating the folder structure described above. Include the following code in the appropriate files once you have created the folder structure described above.


    1. is a Python class.
    2. Student: = student self.definition (self, student) Gender is the same as student self.
    3. year = student function get student details(self): return f year = student ″nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn The following are the gender and year for which you are applying:″ is a Python class.
    4. Defining (self, faculty): oneself.
    5. name = the name of the faculty member.
    6. Get the details of a faculty member using the function get faculty details(self) ″nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn The following is the subject of this email: ″The foregoing is contained within the and files.
    • Let’s create another file in order to get access to the classes included within it.
    • To do this, create a file named in the package directory and add the following code to it.


    1. The Student and Faculty classes are imported into from their respective files in the student import directory.
    2. Importing students from the faculty Faculty members are generating dictations for students and faculty members.
    3. constructing instances of the Student and Faculty classes using the student dict and faculty dict variables student is the same as Student(student dict).
    4. faculty dict = Faculty(faculty dict) = faculty obtaining and publishing the names and addresses of students and teachers print(student.get student details()) print() print(faculty.get faculty details()) print(faculty.get faculty details()) print(faculty.get faculty details()) In the case of the file, the following result will be obtained.


    • John is his given name. Men’s clothing and accessories 3rd year of existence Emma’s given name is Emma. Programming is the subject of this article. In this lesson, we learned how to build and access packages in Python. Furthermore, this is a straightforward package. The number of sub-packages and files included within a package may be many. See how to get to subpackage modules in the next section. Make a directory with the following structure in it. for the package (university)
    • for the subpackage (student)

    Copy and paste the student code from above into this field. Let’s have a look at how to make use of it in the file. In the file, add the following code to it.

    Example is imported from student.main. generating instances of the Student class student = Student(student dict) obtaining and printing student details print(student.get student details()) getting and printing student details print(student.get student details() In the case of the file, the following result will be obtained.


    John is his given name. Men’s clothing and accessories 3rd year of existence By referencing the Student class from the file within the subpackage student, we have demonstrated how to use a dot notation (.). Based on the package structure, you have the option to delve as deep as you want in your research.


    • If you have any questions or concerns about the lesson, please post them in the comments. Published on the 13th of November, 2020 at 12:35:18. Questions and Answers on a related topic
    • Learn how to get access to a Java package from a different package.
    • What is the procedure for creating a namespace package in Python?
    • The distinction between a Python module and a Python package
    • What is the difference between a Python module and a Python package?
    • The Python JSON encoder and decoder package is described below.
    • • How do I BIND a DBRM to a PACKAGE and a PACKAGE to a PLAN?
    • Python has a package extension utility that may be used.
    • Modifiers for access and non-access in the Java programming language
    • Multi-access channels and random access channels are two types of channels.
    • Get access to the first and last elements of a Python tuple
    • In Java, how do you define, construct, initialize, and access an array of elements?
    • When writing JavaScript, how do you build an object and access its properties?
    • The following questions are addressed: How do I import everything from a Python namespace / package?
    • Pandas in Python – Create a PeriodIndex and set the frequency of the index
    • DateOffset and increment date are created using Python Pandas.
    • When it comes to Java, what’s the difference between import and package?
    See also:  How To Enter Zip Code Starting With 0 In Excel?

    Python Packages

    • We arrange a big number of files into separate folders and subfolders based on a set of criteria, in order to make them more easily accessible and manageable. Python’s package system works in a similar fashion, taking the notion of a modular approach to the next logical level of abstraction. Remember that a module can include a number of different objects, such as classes, functions, and so on. A package can contain one or more modules that are relevant to the situation. A package is really a folder that contains one or more module files, which is how it is represented physically. Let’s construct a package named mypackage by following the procedures outlined below: Create a new folder on your hard drive named D:MyApp.
    • Create a subdirectory called’mypackage’ under MyApp and label it as such.
    • Prepare the mypackage folder by creating an file
    • Making use of a Python-aware editor such as IDLE, write the following code to generate the modules and

    Def SayHello(name): print out the greeting (″Hello ″, name) def sum(x,y): return the sum of x and y average(x,y) is defined as return (x+y)/2. power(x,y) is defined as: return x**y That’s all there is to it. Mypackage is the name of the package that we have produced. The following is an example of a folder hierarchy:

    Importing a Module from a Package

    1. Now, in order to test our package, browse to the MyApp folder from the command prompt and call the Python prompt from within that location.
    2. D:\ MyApp>python The power() function in the functions module of the mypackage package is called once the module has been imported.
    3. >>> derived from my package >>> Import functions are available.
    4. functions.power(3,2) 9 Specific functions from a module inside the package can also be imported if they are available.
    5. >>> from mypackage.functions import sum >>> from mypackage.functions import sum sum(10,20) 30 >>> average(10,12) Traceback (from the most recent call to the most recent call): The name ‘average’ is not defined in the file ″″, line 1, in NameError: name ‘average’ is not defined in the file ″″.

    Among the contents of the package folder is a special file, which includes a copy of the package’s content. It accomplishes two objectives:

    1. The Python interpreter recognizes a folder as a package if it contains the file
    2. exposes specified resources from its modules to be imported
    3. and exposes specified resources from its modules to be exported.
    1. When this package is imported, an file makes all of the functions from the aforementioned modules available.
    2. It is important to note that the inclusion of is required for the folder to be recognized by Python as a package.
    3. Optionally, you may specify which functions from individual modules should be made available to the user.
    4. In addition, we will build another Python script in the MyApp folder, and we will import the mypackage package into that script as well.
    5. It should be at the same level as the package that is to be imported into the system.
    6. In most cases, file is left empty.
    • However, it may also be used to select individual functions from modules in the package folder and make them available for importation into the application.
    • Make the following changes to average and power are imported from from.functions importing from.greet SayHello In order to use the supplied functions, they must be imported into the interpreter session or another executable script at this point.
    • To test mypackage, create a file in the MyApp folder.
    • import power, average, and SayHello are all calculated from mypackage.
    • SayHello() with x equals power (3,2) the print() function print(″power(3,2): ″, x) It should be noted that the functions power() and SayHello() are imported from the package rather than their individual modules, as was done previously.
    • The following is the output of the script above: D: in MyApp>python Greetings, global power(3,2):9

    Install a Package Globally

    1. Once a package has been built, it may be installed for system-wide usage by executing the setup script that was generated.
    2. The setup() method from the setuptools module is invoked by the script.
    3. Now, let’s install mypackage for system-wide usage by running a setup script on the computer.
    4. Save the following code as in the MyApp subfolder of the parent folder.
    5. The setup() method from the setuptools module is invoked by the script.
    6. The setup() function is invoked by the script.
    • The setup() function accepts a variety of parameters, including the name, version, author, and list of dependencies, among others.
    • The zip safe option specifies whether the package is installed in compressed mode or in conventional mode, depending on the configuration.
    • setuptools import setup setup from setuptools the package name (name=’mypackage’, the version (0.1), the description (‘Testing installation of Package’), the URL (″), the author (auth), the author email (″), the license (‘MIT’), the number of packages (″), and the zip safe attribute (False) Execute the following command to use the pip program to install mypackage on your computer.
    • Check to see that the command prompt is located in the parent folder, in this case D:, before proceeding.
    • MyApp.
    • pip install mypackage D:MyApp>pip install mypackage d: d is for processing MyApp Installing the packages that have been collected: mypack Mypack’s install is now being executed.

    Mypackage-0.1 has been successfully installed.Mypackage is now open for usage throughout the whole system and may be imported into any script or language without restriction.Python (D:python) is a programming language.mypackage should be imported >>> mypackage.average(10,20) 15.0 >>> 15.0 >>> mypackage.power(10,2) 100 You may also wish to make the bundle available to the whole public.

    PyPI (which stands for Python Package Index) is a repository of Python packages; you can learn more about how to add a package to PyPI by visiting this page.

    Python Packages¶

    In Python, what exactly is a ″package″?

    Packages, modules, imports, oh my!¶

    • Modules A python ″module″ is a single namespace that contains a collection of values such as functions, constants, class declarations, and practically any other type of value.

    A module is typically represented by a single file, such as


    1. A ″package″ is essentially the same as a module, with the exception that it can include other modules (and indeed other packages).
    2. A package is often represented by a directory including a file as well as any number of python files or additional package folders, as follows: a package module a package a sub package module module can be completely empty – or it can include any arbitrary python code that the user desires.
    3. When the package is imported, the code will be executed — unlike modules within packages, modules within packages are not immediately imported like modules within modules.
    4. As a result of the aforesaid structure, the code in a package/ will be executed.
    5. There will be a list of names available in: but: will not exist if any names defined in are available in: Submodules must be explicitly imported in order to be available: import a package.module a

    The module search path¶

    1. When you import a module or package, the interpreter maintains a list of all the locations where it checks for modules or packages: import sys for p in sys.path: import sys for p in sys.path: p a printout That list may be manipulated to add or delete routes, allowing Python to discover modules in a different location.
    2. Furthermore, every module has a filename that links to the directory in which it resides.
    3. This allows you to add pathways that are related to where you are, and so on.
    4. NOTE: It is normally preferable to use setuptools’ ″develop″ mode instead – see below for further information.

    Building Your Own Package¶

    Everything you need to know about creating your own package in its simplest form.

    Why Build a Package?¶

    There are a number of useful tools available to assist you with the creation, installation, and distribution of packages. Using a well-structured, consistent style for your package makes it simple to use the tools contained within it. Even if you never intend to share your work with anybody else, a well-structured package makes development more efficient.

    What is a Package?¶

    A collection of modules… a collection of modules… as well as the documentation… and the tests… as well as any top-level scripts… as well as any data files that may be necessary… as well as instructions on how to construct and install it…

    Basic Package Structure:¶

    1. CHANGES.txt is located at package name/bin/CHANGES.txt.
    2. LICENSE.txt is located in the docs/ directory.
    3. The file contains the README.txt file.
    4. The file contains the package name/ test/ test test Modifications.txt file contains the list of changes made with each release.
    5. If you pick a license (and you should!
    6. ), it will be in LICENSE.txt.
    • MANIFEST.IN: a description of the non-code files that should be included in the project.
    • A description of the package should be included in the README.txt file, which should be written in either ReST or Markdown (for PyPi): This is the script that will be used to build and install the package.
    • bin/: This is the directory containing the package.
    • This is the location where you should place top-level scripts (some folks use scripts) docs/: the documentation package name/: the package name Main package – this is where all of the code will be stored.
    • test/: the unit tests for your application.
    • There are several options here: Place it inside the packaging – it is compatible.

    Install package name using pip, then import package name.test with pip, then package name.test.runall with pip () Alternatively, maintain it at the top of the hierarchy.Here are some thoughts on the subject: ‘ Where should the tests be placed’

    The File¶

    Your file explains your package and instructs setuptools on how to package, create, and install it. It is located in your home directory. Because it is written in Python, you may customize it anyway you see fit. However, in the most straightforward situation, it is effectively declarative.

    What Does Do?¶

    • Metadata about the version and package
    • A list of the packages that should be included
    • List of other files that should be included
    • The following is a list of dependencies:
    • If you are not using scikit-build, below is a list of the extensions that need to be compiled.

    An example¶

    1. Importing setup setup(name=’PackageName’, version=’0.1.0′, author=’An Great Coder’, author email=’[email protected]’, packages=, scripts=, url=’licensing=’LICENSE.txt’, description=’An awesome package that does stuff’, long description=open) from setuptools is a simple way to get started.
    2. (‘README.txt’).
    3. read(), install requires=, and other functions Python tests [″Django >= 1.1.1″, ″pytest″,])


    1. Provides a means of allowing the end user to personalize the installation in some way.
    2. It’s an ini style file with the following syntax: option=value.
    3. straightforward in both reading and writing build py, install) is one of the Distutils commands that command may be used with, and option is one of the parameters that command can be used with Note that an option with the command-line argument spelt -foo-bar is spelled foo bar in the configuration files.


    1. Setuptools may perform a wide range of tasks when a script is provided, including: Creates a source distribution (a tar archive containing all of the files required to create and install the program) by doing the following: Wheels are constructed as follows: (This will only work if you have the wheel package installed:) Installing a wheel using pip Build from the ground up: And then there’s the installation:

    Develop mode¶

    Installing in ″developer″ or ″editable″ mode is as follows: or:

    Under Development¶

    1. It’s incredibly, extremely good to be in development mode: Alternatively, run $ python develop or: (″editable″ is represented by the letter e; the two words mean the same thing.) It adds a link (really, a collection of *.pth files) to your code in the Python installation, allowing your package to be installed while any modifications are immediately effective.
    2. As a result, all of your test code, client code, and other code may all import your package in the usual way.
    3. There will be no system.path hacking.
    4. When working on anything that requires more than a single file, it’s a good idea to utilize it.
    Install Development Install
    Copies package into site-packages Adds a.pth file to site-packages, pointed at package source root
    Used when creating conda packages Used when developing software locally
    Normal priority in sys.path End of sys.path (only found if nothing else comes first)

    Aside on pip and dependencies¶

    • There is no solution for Pip at this time: pip may replace packages in your environment with versions that are incompatible with your environment. When this occurs, things will break
    • proceed with caution (and, preferably, in disposable contexts) when using pip.

    Getting Started With a New Package¶

    For any script other than a single-file script (and maybe even then):

    1. Construct the skeleton of the package structure
    2. Create a file
    3. Pip install -e is equivalent to pip install -e.
    4. Put some tests in package/test
    5. run pytest in the test directory, or pytest -pyargs package name to see what happens.

    Alternatively, use the ″Cookie Cutter″:

    Exercise: A Small Example Package¶

    • Create a simple package structure consisting of, python, and at least one functioning test.

    Start with the ridiculous code in the instructional repo at: python-packaging-tutorial/setup example/, or you can download a zip file here: to get you started:


    • Capitalize is a pointless little tool that capitalizes the first letter of each word in a text file. However, it follows the basic structure of a Python package: a library of ″logic code,″ a command-line script, a data file, and tests, among other things.

    So let’s have a look at what’s inside: $ ls capital mod.pytest capital cap data.txt capital mod.pytest capital capital capital capital capital capital capital capital capital capital cap script.pysample text file.txt cap script.pysample text file.txt

    What are these files?¶

    1. Capital The primary logic code ( is at the heart of the system.
    2. Test capital is a command-line application written in Python.
    3. Test code for the logic cap top-level script cap data.txt data file sample text file.txt sample example file to test with cap cap data.txt data file cap cap cap cap cap cap cap cap cap cap script.p Try it out for yourself: cap is located in the capitalize/ directory.
    4. sample text file.txt The following text has been capitalized and stored in sample text file cap.txt: Sample Text File I’m through with this.
    5. As a result, it works as long as you are in the directory that contains all of the code.

    Setting up a package structure¶

    1. Create a simple package structure by following these steps: README.txt package name/ bin/ README.txt package name/ test/ test package name/ Let’s put all of that together for capital: Create the package by following these steps: the command $ mkdir capitalize $ cd capitalize/ $ $ cd capitalize/ $ Insert the following code into it: $ mv./capital $ mv./capital $ mv./ mv./ Make a directory specifically for the tests: Transfer the tests to that location: the command $ mv./test capital the command Make a directory for the script in the following format: Insert the following script into that: $ mv./cap bin $ mv./cap bin Make a data directory for your information: Move the following information into that: Data may be found in $ mv./cap data.txt We now have a package in our possession!
    2. Let’s give it a shot: $ python bin/cap $ python bin/cap Traceback (from the most recent call to the most recent call): Line 8 of file ″bin/cap,″ in the import capital mod statement ImportError: There is no such module as capital mod.
    3. That, unfortunately, did not work.
    4. What’s the harm in trying?
    5. Everything has been rearranged, as follows: The modules are unable to communicate with one another.

    Let’s Write a¶

    1. !/usr/bin/env python from the setuptools command line Import setup setup(name=’capitalize’, version=’1.0′, list directories rather than files, list folders rather than files) packages=[‘capitalize’, ‘capitalize.test’], scripts=, package data=,) packages=[‘capitalize’, ‘capitalize.test’], scripts=, package data=,) packages=[‘capitalize’, ‘capitalize.test’], scripts=, package data=,) packages=[‘capitalize’, ‘capitalize.test’], scripts=, package data=,) packages (Keep in mind that a ″package″ is a folder containing the ainit.pyfile.) That’s pretty much the bare minimum you can do.
    2. should be saved outside of the capitalized package directory.
    3. Install it in ″editable″ mode by following these steps: $ pip install -e./ $ pip install -e In order to obtain the URL file:/Users/chris.barker/HAZMAT/Conferences/SciPy-2018/PackagingTutorial/TutorialDay/capitalize, you must first navigate to the following path: When installing gathered packages, be sure to capitalize the first letter of each package name.
    4. develop is being used for capitalization.
    5. The capital has been successfully placed.
    6. Try it out for yourself: cap is a Python script.
    • In the file ″/Users/chris.barker/miniconda2/envs/py3/bin/cap″, line 6, in the exec(compile(open)) function, there is a traceback to the previous call (file).
    • the call to read(),file, and the command ‘exec’ File ″/Users/chris.barker/HAZMAT/Conferences/SciPy-2018/PackagingTutorial/TutorialDay/capitalize/capitalize/bin/cap″, line 8, in import capital mod, in capital mod import capital mod import capital mod ModuleNotFound Error: There is no such module as ‘capital mod’.
    • Why didn’t it work the second time?
    • Some imports need to be updated, so please bear with us.
    • The import main import capital mod line in cap should read: from capitalize import main from capitalize import capital mod, and similarly in from capitalize import main from capitalize import capital mod.
    • And give it a shot: cap sample text file.txt $ cap sample text file.txt Traceback (from the most recent call to the most recent call): File ″./cap″, line 6, in exec(compile(open), in exec(compile(open), in (file).

    the call to read(),file, and the command ‘exec’ File ″./cap,″ line 8, in from capitalize import capital mod, in from capitalize import capital mod Special words = load special words(get datafile name()) is defined at line 35 of the file ″/./capital″ Open(data file name) as data file in file ″./capital″, line 21, in load special words with data file as open(data file name).FileNotFoundError: There is no such file or directory as ‘./capitalize/cap data.txt’ in the current directory.Our script is unable to locate the data file.We modified the location of the file, however we did not modify the path in the capital

    Let’s get things sorted out.Line 32 should be replaced with: with: return Path(file).parent / ″cap data.txt″ in place of: return Path(file).parent / ″data/cap data.txt″ in place of: return Path(file).parent / ″data/cap data.txt″

    Running the tests:¶

    1. Option 1: Change directory to the test directory: The test session begins with $ cd capitalize/test/$ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest $ pytest The following error occurred: test capital in import capital mod EModuleNotFoundError: There is no such module as ‘capital mod’.
    2. We made a mistake here, and we need to rectify it as well: capital mod is imported from capitalize.
    3. And now we’re all set: $ pytest (python test) The test session begins ============================================================================================================= test capital was used to collect three things.
    4. ============== 3 passed in 0.06 seconds, according to the clock.
    5. ============ You may also run the tests from any location on the command line, for example, as follows: capital $ pytest -pyargs capital capitalize/capitalize/test/test capital were gathered as three separate items.
    6. =============== 3 passed in 0.03 seconds, according to the clock.
    • ==========

    Handling Requirements¶

    Only the most basic of packages require more than just the Python standard library.

    Requirements in¶

    !/usr/bin/env python from distutils.core import setup setup(name=’mypkg’, version=’1.0′, list folders, not files packages=, install requires=,)!/usr/bin/env python from distutils.core import setup setup(name=’mypkg’, version=’1.0′, list folders, not files packages=, install requires

    Requirements in requirements.txt¶

    • A common blunder: requirements.txt is frequently corrupted as a result of pip freeze
    • It was pinned down far too firmly.
    • OK for environment creation, but not so good for packing
    • Donald Stufft (PyPA): Abstract vs. Concrete dependencies

    Requirements in setup.cfg (ideal)¶

    My package is the name of the pkg. Attribute: src.VERSION version = attr: version click install requires to see what packages are needed In contrast to, which configures setup using setup cfg files, this is parse-able without execution.

    Break time!¶

    Following that will be the creation of redistributable objects.

    How to Build a Python package?

    • In this tutorial, we’ll go through how to create a Python package from the ground up. Packages are nothing more than a collection of applications that are meant to carry out a certain set of tasks for the user (s). Packages are divided into two categories: built-in packages such as collection, datetime, sqlite, and so on
    • and external packages such as flask, django, tensorflow, and so on.

    Creating a package

    First and foremost, we must consider how we will arrange our code so that others will be able to access its features. Making a package in Python is as simple as adding to the directory where it will be used. We are going to create a package called test package in this section. Let’s create file.


    1. The following counter definition is imported from collections: c = Counter def count in list(l, word): (l) return the value of c In the meantime, create a directory named test package and place file in there.
    2. That is all there is to it; our bundle is complete.
    3. All that our software does is keep track of the number of times a word appears in a list.
    4. Create a file outside of the test package directory in order to make use of our package.
    5. Simply import the newly formed package and call the count in list function from within the file to complete the task.
    6. Using the code described below, we can accomplish our goal.


    Count in listl = count from test package import count in listl = count from count in listl (l, ″gfg″) print(count) That’s all there is to it. We have recently completed the creation of our first bundle. The following is an example of how our directory structure should appear.

    Package-folder test package package-folder There are two files in one directory. To try it out, simply put python3 into your terminal. And our final product should look like this: We can use this method to develop a large number of complicated programs that can be used in other scripts.

    Uploading our package

    1. Now, let’s look at how we may get our package ready to be published to the PyPI repository.
    2. We’ll need several other files in our package folder, such as README.MD, LICENSE, and, to complete the installation.
    3. The following is the recommended structure for our code.
    4. the package-folder LICENSE the the the test package the the package-folder 1 directory and 4 files are contained within it.
    5. Make careful to delete the previously produced file, as it was only meant to be used for manual testing.
    6. For the LICENSE, we recommend that you go with the MIT LICENSE because it provides the greatest flexibility and freedom.
    • On the internet, we may learn about the many sorts of licenses available.
    • After that, you should construct the file.
    • A comprehensive description of the product would be contained inside it, on the whole.
    • If you are unfamiliar with markdown-style writing, we recommend that you read this article.
    • Once we have your file ready, we will need to build the script to run it.
    • This is the most significant section.


    • Import setuptoolswith open(″″, ″r″) as fh: Import setuptoolswith open(″″, ″r″ as fh: description = The test package has the following attributes: ( name=″test-package,″ version=″0.0.1,″ author=″GeeksforGeeks,″ author email=″[email protected],″ packages=, description=″A sample test package,″ description=″A sample test package,″ long description=description, long description content type=″text/markdown,″ license=″MIT″, python requires=’>=3.8′, install requires=) It is necessary to replace theauthor with your own name in the code above.
    • Author email should be replaced with your email address.
    • Replace url with the GitHub URL of the package you’re working on

    Our package has finally been completed.

    Register our package to PyPI

    1. Now that we’ve finished developing our Python package, we’ll need to submit it to the Python Package Index (PyPI).
    2. 1.
    3. Upload the file to GitHub.
    4. To do this, we’ll create a new GitHub repository and upload all of our code to it.
    5. In case you don’t know how to push code to a GitHub repository, you can refer to this page for instructions.
    6. Please remember to edit our URL in to reflect the newly generated URL for our GitHub repository as well.
    • Our repository should be available to the whole public.
    • Make a PyPI account by following these instructions.
    • We want to publish the package to PyPI, thus we’ll need to create an account there.
    • To do so, simply go to PyPI and register for an account with them.
    • 3.
    • Creating distributions from scratch It is necessary to have distribution archives in order to host it as a package.

    Two extra packages must be installed in order for us to be able to produce these packages.pip3 install setuptools wheel setuptools wheel Now that they have been installed, use the following command to build archive files: Sdist bdist wheel python3 sdist It will create the directories build, dist, and test package.egg-info as a result of this operation.You should now have a directory structure that looks something like this.package-folder build bdist.linux-x86 64 lib test package dist test package-0.0.1-py3-none-any.whl test-package-0.0.1.tar.gz test-package-0.0.1.tar.gz test package.egg-info LICENSE test package.egg-info dependency links.txt PKG-INFO SOURCES.txt top level.txt LICENSE test package.egg-info There are 7 folders and 11 files in total.

    4.Deployment To make a submission to PyPI, go here.The twine package must be installed before we can proceed.twine pip3 installation Now, upload the package with the appropriate version stated in the file to your server.Run the following command to do this:twine upload -repository pypi dist/* That was everything there was to know about building and delivering packages in Python.

    Using our package

    1. We should be able to utilize the package after it has been built, don’t you think?
    2. After all, it was designed to allow developers to reuse the same logic across several codebases.
    3. Establish an entirely new directory and within it, create a virtual environment for your users to work in.
    4. To accomplish this, simply typepython3 -m venv env source env/bin/activate into your terminal.
    5. Installing your freshly delivered package into the virtual environment is the next step.
    6. To be able to install it, you’ll need to utilize the pip package manager.
    • install test-package with pip Let’s have a look at how we may make use of this package in our code.
    • The concept is straightforward.
    • After all, this is only a package, right?
    • So all we have to do now is import it into the system as a package.
    • count in list is imported from test package.
    • We now have a clear understanding of our role.

    Let’s see if we can make use of it.output from print(count in list(, ″gfg″)): 2 Printing the count in list(, ″maths″) resulted in the following output: 0 That’s all there is to it.When we put it all together, we have


    From test package, import count in listprint(count in list(, ″gfg″)), which prints the number of items in the list. ″maths″ is represented by the function print(count in list(, ″maths″)). Output: So that was the end of the process of creating a package and submitting it to PyPI.

    How to Create a Python Package

    When you have a significant number of Python classes (also known as ″modules″), you’ll want to organize them into packages to make them easier to find.When the number of modules (a module may be as simple as a file holding a collection of classes) in a project develops sufficiently, it is preferable to organize them into packages – that is, to group together modules/classes that are functionally related.This article will walk you through the process of creating a Python package.

    Steps to Create a Python Package

    Working with Python packages is a really straightforward process. All that is required of you is:

    1. Create a directory and label it with the name of your package
    2. It should have all of your classes in it.
    3. Create file in the directory where you want to start the program.

    That’s all there is to it!It is really simple to construct a Python package from file is required because it informs Python that this directory is a Python package directory rather than a regular directory (or folder – whatever you want to name it).Python will not recognize this directory unless this file is present.In any case, it is in this file that we will write the import statements that will allow us to import the classes from our newly created package.

    Example On How to Create a Python Package

    The Animals package will be created in this lesson, which will consist of two module files entitled Mammals and Birds, which will each include the Mammals and Birds classes, and a single class named Mammals.

    Step 1: Create the Package Directory

    As a result, we first establish a directory called Animals.

    Step 2: Add Classes

    Now we’ll develop the two classes that will make up our package. Initialize the Animals directory with the following code in a file titled First, create a file named and place the following code within it:

    class Mammals:    definit (self):        ”’ Constructor for this class. ”’        Create some member animals        self.members =     def printMembers(self):        print(‘Printing members of the Mammals class’)        for member in self.members:            print(‘\t%s ‘ % member)

    The code is quite straightforward to understand!Among the properties of the class is members, which has a list of various animals that we could be interested in.A method entitled printMembers is also included, which produces a list of all the animals that belong to this class!Keep in mind that when you build a Python package, all classes must be capable of being imported, and they will not be run on the command line.Following that, we’ll construct a new class called Birds.

    The following code should be placed in a file titled, which should be located under the Animals directory :

    class Birds:    definit (self):        ”’ Constructor for this class. ”’        Create some member animals        self.members =     def printMembers(self):        print(‘Printing members of the Birds class’)        for member in self.members:           print(‘\t%s ‘ % member)

    This code is quite similar to the code that we gave for the Mammals class earlier in this article.

    Step 3: Add File

    We next create a file under the Animals directory and paste the following code into it:

    from Mammals import Mammalsfrom Birds import Birds

    That’s all there is to it! When it comes to creating a Python package, there is nothing more to it. For testing purposes, we construct a simple Python script named in the same directory as the Animals directory. The following code should be placed in the file:

    Import classes from your brand new packagefrom Animals import Mammalsfrom Animals import BirdsCreate an object of Mammals class & call a method of itmyMammal = Mammals()myMammal.printMembers()Create an object of Birds class & call a method of itmyBird = Birds()myBird.printMembers()

    How to Build Your Very First Python Package

    I made the decision a few months ago to make Caer, a Computer Vision package available in Python, open to the public.Excruciatingly unpleasant, in my opinion, was the procedure.The reasons for this are presumably obvious: inadequate (and unclear) documentation, a dearth of useful tutorials, and so on.As a result, I decided to create this post in the hope that it may be of assistance to anyone who are having difficulty doing so.We’re going to create a very basic module and make it open to everyone in the globe who is interested in it.

    The contents of this module are organized in a straightforward manner.There are a total of four Python files, each of which has a single method that is called by the others.For the time being, we’ll keep things as basic as possible.base-verysimplemodule-> Base verysimplemodule-> Actual Module extras base-verysimplemodule-> Base verysimplemodule-> Actual Module You’ll see that I’ve created a subdirectory named verysimplemodule, which has two Python files, and, which you can see below.In addition, there is a folder titled extras (which contains and contents of this folder will serve as the foundation for our Python module.

    Bringing out theinit s file is a common feature of every Python package, and you’ll find it in every one of them.This file will tell Python to consider directories as modules (or sub-modules) (or sub-modules).Very simply, it will keep the names of all the methods in all the Python files that are in its immediate directory.The following is the structure of a file: technique of importing from a file ‘method’ is a function that may be found in the ‘’ file, which is a Python script.When creating Python packages, you must include file in each sub-directory of the package you are creating.

    These sub-directories contain the sub-modules that make up your whole package.Under our scenario, we’ll place scripts in the ‘real module’ directory verysimplemodule, which will look something like: We’re going to do the same thing for the extras folder, as follows: from add import add from subtract import subtract and we’re going to do the same thing for the extras folder, as follows: import multiply from multiply import multiply import divide from divide import divide Once that is completed, we will have completed around half of the procedure!

    How to set up

    To complete the installation of our base-verysimplemodule folder (which is in the same directory as our module verysimplemodule), we must include the file.If you wish to create the real module in question, you will need this file to do so.Please keep in mind that you may name the file whatever you choose.This file does not have a name, unlike file, which has.The names setup my very awesome python and python package are also acceptable possibilities, although it’s typically recommended to stay with as a standard practice.

    In the file, you will find information about your package, such as the package’s name and version, as well as platform-dependencies and a whole lot more.Because we won’t be need any sophisticated meta information for our purposes, the following code should be suitable for the vast majority of packages you create: import setup, find packages, and find packages from setuptools AVERAGE VERSION = ‘0.0.1’ ″My very first Python package,″ says the author.LONG DESCRIPTION = ‘This is my first Python package, and it has a somewhat more detailed explanation.’ Setup (the name of the package must match the name of the folder’verysimplemodule’): name=″verysimplemodule,″ version=VERSION, author=″Jason Dsouza,″ author email=″″, description=DESCRIPTION, long description=LONG DESCRIPTION, packages=find packages(), install requires=, add any additional packages that need to be installed along with your package name=″verysimplemodule For example: ‘caer’ keywords=, classifiers=, etc.[ Its development status is 3 – Alpha, and its intended audience is education.Its programming language is 2; its programming language is 3; its operating system is MacOS X; its operating system is Microsoft Windows; and it’s intended audience is education.Having completed this step, all that remains now is for us to run the following command in the same directory as base-verysimplemodule: is a Python script.

    bdist wheel sdist sdist bdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sdist sd All of the essential Python packages will be created as a result of this operation.A source distribution and a wheel will be created using the sdist and bdist wheel commands, which you can then publish to PyPi.

    PyPi — here we come!

    PyPi is the official Python repository, which contains all of the Python packages available for download.You may think of it as the Github for Python Packages, or something along those lines.If you want to make your Python package available to people all around the world, you’ll need to sign up for a PyPi account first.After we’ve completed this step, we’ll be ready to post our package to PyPi.Remember the source distribution and wheel that were created when we ran python

    Do you remember how to use them?Those are the files that will be posted to the PyPi repository.You will need to install twine first, if you do not already have it installed, in order to complete this task.It’s as simple as pip install twine to get started.

    How to upload your package to PyPi

    Assuming you have twine installed, you may proceed as follows: upload dist/twine twine upload dist This command will upload the contents of the dist folder, which was automatically created when we ran the python script earlier in this tutorial.Enter your PyPi username and password into the appropriate fields when prompted.It’s possible that if you’ve followed this instruction to the letter, you’ll receive an error message saying that the repository already exists.This is most often caused by a name conflict between the name of your package and the name of another package that already exists.To put it another way, you should modify the name of your product since someone else has already claimed that name.

    That’s all there is to it!Installing your module using pip is straightforward.Simply open a terminal and type: pip install (in our instance, pip install verysimplemodule) on the command line.Check here how Python neatly installs your package from the binaries that were created previously in this tutorial.Start by launching a Python interactive shell and attempting to import your package: >> verysimplemodule is imported as vsm, and then vsm.add is called (2,5) 7 >> vsm.subtract is a subtraction function (5,4) 1 To gain access to the division and multiplication methods (which were previously located in a subdirectory called extras), perform the following commands:>> import verysimplemodule as vsm >> vsm.extras.divide(4,2) 2 >> vsm.extras.multiple vsm.extras.multiple (5,3) 15 That is all there is to it.Congratulations!

    You’ve just completed the development of your first Python package.Your product, despite its simplicity, is now available for download by anyone anywhere in the globe (so long as they have Python, of course).

    What’s next?

    Test PyPi

    Basic mathematical operations like as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division were performed using a very simple module in this course – the package we used was incredibly simple.It’s not a good idea to post them directly to PyPi, especially if this is your first time doing something like this.Thanks to Test PyPi, a distinct instance of PyPi where you may test and experiment with your package, we don’t have to worry about breaking anything (you will need to sign up for a separate account on the platform).The procedure that you must follow in order to upload to Test PyPi is nearly identical to the procedure that you must follow in order to publish to Production PyPi.When you run the following command, the package will be uploaded to Test PyPi.

    You will be prompted to enter your Test PyPi credentials on the next page.testpypi dist/* twine upload -repository testpypi To download projects from Test PyPi, run the following command: pip install -index-url ″ Information about the information

    The meta information that we included in the file was quite simple and straightforward. In addition, you may provide information such as numerous maintainers (if any), author email, licensing information, and any number of other details. If you want to do so, the information in this post will be extremely beneficial.

    Look at other repositories

    Studying the methods used by other repositories to construct their packages might be quite beneficial to you.In the course of developing Caer, I was continually examining the way Numpy and Sonnet built up their packages.It is recommended that you have a look at the Caer’s, Numpy’s, and Tensorflow’s repository if you want to create packages that are a little more complex than the ones provided by Caer.Learn how to code for nothing.More than 40,000 people have benefited from freeCodeCamp’s open source curriculum, which has helped them land careers as developers.

    Get started today.

    Python Packages: How To Create And Use With Examples

    We arrange and organize our code using the help of Python packages. When people talk about Python packages, they are often referring to one of the following:

    1. The Python Package Index is a repository of packages that can be installed using tools such as pip and pipenv. The majority of packages are provided through the Python Package Index.
    2. Packages are code structures and organizational tools that you may create in your own code base.

    If you are visiting this page for the first time, you might want to start with the article on installing packages with pip install rather than this one.In addition, the paper on virtual environments comes highly recommended from me.However, the focus of this essay is on the second meaning of the phrase Python packages: the process of developing your own packages and modules.We’ll look at what packages are, how they’re organized, and how to construct our own Python packages in this section.Also covered is how packages and modules work together to organize and structure your codebase’s organization and structure.

    If you are unfamiliar with modules, I recommend that you first read my essay on Python modules before continuing on.These two topics are inextricably linked to one another in terms of their importance.

    What are Python packages?

    A Python package is a directory that includes Python modules that are organized into subdirectories.The sub-packages of a Python package, which are also folders containing modules, may be f

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