What Command Can Be Used To Search For Dpm Package Information?

A command used to search DPM repositories for package information. apt-get (Advanced Package Tool) command A command used to install and upgrade DPM packages from software repositories, as well as manage and remove installed DPM packages.

What is the use of the DPM command?

This command returns all the basic volumes that are present on the DPM server named TestingServer. This excludes the system and reserved volumes, as well as dynamic volumes. This command returns the volumes that are added to storage pool on the DPM server named TestingServer.

How to get list of disks and volumes on a DPM server?

Retrieves list of disks and volumes on a DPM server. The Get-DPMDiskStorage cmdlet gets the disks or volumes that can be added to the storage pool on a given System Center 2019 – Data Protection Manager (DPM) server.

What is the get-dpmdiskstorage cmdlet?

Description. The Get-DPMDiskStorage cmdlet gets the disks or volumes that can be added to the storage pool on a given System Center 2019 – Data Protection Manager (DPM) server. A storage pool on a DPM server consists of a set of disks where the server stores replicas, shadow copies, and transfer logs for protected data sources and a set

How do I list all packages in ADB?

adb shell pm list packages -f You can easily get a list of group packages by a certain manufacturer, or come common term. For instance, if you want to list all apps by Google, you can use the following command. adb shell pm list packages | grep ‘ google ‘

What command can be used to display the contents of a file that was compressed with a compression utility?

T/F – To decompress files that have been compressed with the compress utility, you can use the decompress command followed by the names of the files to be decompressed. What is the average compression ratio for the gzip utility using the LZ77 compression algorithm?

What command looks for a Makefile?

The makefile is read by the make command, which determines the target file or files that are to be made and then compares the dates and times of the source files to decide which rules need to be invoked to construct the target. Often, other intermediate targets have to be created before the final target can be made.

Which option when used with the gzip command causes the compression ratio for files that have been compressed to be listed?

When using the gzip utility, the -l option is also known as best compression and results in a higher compression ratio.

What option can be added to the dpkg command to remove a specific package from the system?

We already discussed how to remove a package using the dpkg command. You can also purge a package, a process which removes everything, including conffiles. This can be done using the -P command line option.

Which command is used to print working directory?

Print Working Directory (pwd) The print-working-directory command is used to determine your location in the file system. When the computer executes this command, it will show the user the absolute pathname for their current directory.

Which command is used to view compressed?

Q. Which command is used to view compressed text file contents
B. type
C. zcat
D. print
Answer» c. zcat

What is make command?

The make command invokes the execution of the makefile. It is a special file that contains the shell commands that we create to maintain the project. The makefile contains targets and commands for execution. It is not allowed to create more than one makefile. It is recommended to create a separate directory for it.

How does the make command work?

The make command uses information from a description file, which you create, to build a file containing the completed program, which is then called a target file. The internal rules for the make command are located in a file that looks like a description file.

What is make command in Ubuntu?

Ubuntu Make is a command line tool which allows you to download the latest version of popular developer tools on your installation, installing it alongside all of the required dependencies (which will only ask for root access if you don’t have all the required dependencies installed already), enable multi-arch on your

What level of compression is specified the gzip command would compress the file the most?

gzip allows you to specify a range of compression levels, from 1 to 9. -1 or –fast means fastest compression speed with minimal compression ratio, -9 or –best indicates the slowest compression speed with maximum compression ratio. The default compression level is -6.

What command can be used to view and modify the date and time within the BIOS?

Just type hwclock, which will display the date and time of your system’s hardware clock. This is the same date and time that you’ll see from the BIOS screen. You can also use option -r, or –show to display the date and time.

What option can be used with the ps command to display an entire list of processes?

The -e option instructs ps to display all processes. The -f stands full-format listing, which provides detailed information about the processes.

What is apt command?

apt is a command-line utility for installing, updating, removing, and otherwise managing deb packages on Ubuntu, Debian, and related Linux distributions. It combines the most frequently used commands from the apt-get and apt-cache tools with different default values of some options.

What is RPM command?

RPM command is used for installing, uninstalling, upgrading, querying, listing, and checking RPM packages on your Linux system. RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager. With root privilege, you can use the rpm command with appropriate options to manage the RPM software packages.

What option can be added to the Userdel command to remove the home directory of the target user?

Example of using ‘userdel’ command

If you forgot to add the ‘-r’ option to the userdel command and want to delete the target user’s file later, delete the target user’s home directory with rm command. If you want to completely delete the file created by that user, it will completely disappear if you do the following.

When working with Sendmail what command can be used to test SMTP support?

You can use Telnet to test Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) communication between messaging servers. SMTP is the protocol that’s used to send email messages from one messaging server to another.

What command can be used to view and modify the date and time within the BIOS?

Just type hwclock, which will display the date and time of your system’s hardware clock. This is the same date and time that you’ll see from the BIOS screen. You can also use option -r, or –show to display the date and time.

What level of compression is specified the gzip command would compress the file the most?

gzip allows you to specify a range of compression levels, from 1 to 9. -1 or –fast means fastest compression speed with minimal compression ratio, -9 or –best indicates the slowest compression speed with maximum compression ratio. The default compression level is -6.

Which of the following file extensions are used by the Debian package manager?

deb (file format)

The GNOME icon for deb files. (Showing the Debian logo on a package)
Filename extension .deb,.udeb
Type of format Package management system
Container for Software package
Extended from ar archive, tarball

Get-DPMDiskStorage (DataProtectionManager)

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The information you provide will be forwarded to Microsoft: By clicking the submit button, your input will be used to improve Microsoft products and services in the future. Policy on personal information. Thank you very much. This function returns a list of disks and volumes on a DPM server.

In this article

Syntax

[Get-DPMDiskStorage] [Get-DPMDiskStorage] [Get-DPMDiskStorage] [Get-DPMDiskStorage]

Description

  • It is possible to acquire the disks or volumes that may be added to the storage pool on a System Center 2019 – Data Protection Manager (DPM) server by using the Get-DPMDiskStorage command-line parameter.
  • DPM servers have storage pools that are made up of a collection of disks that are used to store replicas, shadow copies, and transfer logs for protected data sources and a collection of ReFS volumes that are used to store replica VHDs on the server.

Examples

Example 1: Return a list of all disks on a DPM server

Ps Get-DPMDiskStorage -DPMServerName ″TestingServer″ -All C:>Get-DPMDiskStorage This command produces a list of all of the disks that are currently attached to the DPM server called TestingServer on the local network. Among these are the disks containing the system and boot partitions.

Example 2: Return a list of disks that are usable by DPM

C:>Get-DPMDiskStorage -DPMServerName ″TestingServer″ PS C:>Get-DPMDiskStorage -DPMServerName ″TestingServer″ These are the disks that are locally attached to the DPM server named TestingServer and that may be utilized by the DPM server, as returned by this command. This does not include drives containing system and boot partitions, as well as virtual disks, among other things.

Example 3: Return a list of all volumes on a DPM server

Create a PS C:>Get-DPMDiskStorage using the DPMServerName ″TestingServer″ and the volume options ″Volumes″ and ″All.″ This command produces a list of all of the basic volumes that are present on the DPM server called TestingServer, as well as any additional volumes that are there. In addition to dynamic volumes, system and reserved volumes are not included in this calculation.

Example 4: Return a list of volumes in the DPM storage pool

The command C:>Get-DPMDiskStorage -DPMServerName ″TestingServer″ -Volumes returns the following result: The volumes that have been added to the storage pool on the DPM server called TestingServer are returned by this command.

Parameters

  • This specifies that the cmdlet will return all local disks or volumes, and will not exclude any disks or volumes that are not part of the DPM storage pool from returning.
  • It is possible that if this switch is not supplied, the cmdlet will return either the disks that can be added to storage pool or the volumes that have already been added to storage pool, depending on how the Volumes switch is set up.
Type: SwitchParameter
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

Sets the name of the DPM server for which this cmdlet will retrieve disks or volumes. This parameter is required.

Type: String
Aliases: ComputerName, CN
Position: 1
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

This specifies that the output should be of the StorageResource class, rather than the Disk or VolumeStorage classes, as the default. The DPM user interface makes use of this switch option.

Type: SwitchParameter
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

This specifies that just volumes will be returned by the cmdlet. This parameter is optional, and if it is not supplied, the cmdlet will just retrieve disks.

Type: SwitchParameter
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False
  • Add-DPMDiskStorage, remove-DPMDiskStorage, and update-DPMDiskStorage are all valid commands.

The ″make″ Command and ″Makefiles″. – Ram Naraian

  • The make command and the Makefiles are as follows:- You will notice that the create command has a lot of built-in information, but it cannot figure out how to build your program on its own, as you will see.
  • Making your application requires you to give a file that instructs make on how to develop it.
  • The makefile is the name of this file.
  • The makefile is most typically found in the same directory as the other source files for a project and is called the makefile.
  • At any given time, you can have a large number of distinct makefiles running on your workstation.
  • When dealing with big projects, it is possible to manage them by creating distinct makefiles for each section of the project that has to be managed separately.
  • Using the make command in conjunction with a makefile, you may create a highly effective project management tool.

The command line interface is frequently used not only to manage the compilation of source code, but also to produce instructional pages and install the program into a target directory.The following is the syntax of Makefiles:- A makefile is a collection of dependencies and rules that must be followed.A dependence consists of a target (a file that has to be generated) and a collection of source files on which it is dependant, as shown in the diagram.

  • In the rules, it is explained how to construct the target from the dependent files.
  • Typically, the target is a single executable file that has been downloaded.
  • The make command reads the makefile, which defines the target file or files that are to be created and then compares the dates and times of the source files to determine which rules need to be called in order to construct the target file or files.
  • It is common for several intermediate milestones to be established before the final aim may be achieved successfully.

The make command makes use of the makefile to establish the order in which the targets must be created as well as the right sequence of rules to be invoked throughout the build process.Make the following choices and adjust the following parameters: – There are various settings available inside the make software itself.The three most generally used options are 1) -k, which instructs make to continue running even if an error is discovered rather than halting as soon as the first problem is identified; and 2) -f, which tells make to display a warning rather than stopping immediately when an error is detected.This may be used, for example, to quickly identify which source files are causing problems during compilation.2) -n, which instructs create to print out the result of what it would have done if it had really performed the action.3) -f, which allows you to specify which file should be used as the makefile by build.

  1. If you do not specify this option, the ordinary version of make searches for a file named makefile in the current directory before proceeding.
  2. Alternatively, if that file does not exist, it looks for a file named Makefile.
  3. For example, if you wish to call a file XYZ, you may do it by using the -f options.
  4. For example, make -f XYZ.
  5. Dependencies and the intended audience:- According to the dependencies, each file in the final program is related to the source files in some way.

The target is often an executable file that is produced as a result of the make command being executed.As an illustration, Assume that a program has the source files listed below.main.c,2.c,3.c,a.h,b.h, and c.h are all C files.These rules should be written in a make file by first writing the target, followed by a colon and a space or a tab, and then a tab or space separated list of files that are necessary in order to generate the target file./ The following is a list of the programs that are dependent on the previous program.main.o 2.o 3.o myapp: main.o 2.o: 2.c a.h b.h 3.o: 3.c a.h b.h c.h main.o: main.c a.h b.h 2.o: 2.c a.h b.h 3.o: 3.c a.h b.h c.h This indicates that the target myapp is dependent on the main.o,2.o, and 3.o files (dependencies for myapp target).

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target main.o is reliant on main.c and a.h to function properly (dependencies for main.o target) 2.c, a.h, and b.h are all dependent on target 2.o (dependencies for 2.o target) 3.c, a.h, b.h, and c.h are all dependent on target 3.o (dependencies for 3.o target) This collection of dependencies provides a hierarchical representation of how the source files are related to one another.You can see right away that if b.h changes, you will need to rewrite both 2.o and 3.o, and because 2.o and 3.o will have changed, you will also need to rebuild myapp as a result of the change.Rules:- Making a target is described in the second section of the makefile, which contains the rules to follow.The following command should be used once the make command has decided that version 2.o has to be rebuilt in the example from the previous section: It’s possible that simply running gcc -c 2.c will suffice in this case.The distinction between a space and a tab in the makefile’s syntax.

  • All rules must be on separate lines that begin with a tab; a space will not suffice.
  • Because multiple spaces and a tab appear to be almost identical, and because there is no differentiation between spaces and tabs practically anywhere else in Linux programming, this can lead to confusion and issues.
  • Additionally, a space at the end of a line in the makefile may result in a make command failing to execute.
  • A straightforward makefile (named Makefile1) is as follows: -o myapp: main.o 2.o 3.o gcc -o myapp: main.o 2.o 3.o gcc The following three main.c files are included: 1.c a,h,g,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Because your makefile does not include either of the typical default names of makefile or Makefile, you must use the -f option to call the make command using the -f option.

If you run this code in a directory that does not include any source code, you will see the following message: $make -f Makefile1 make: $make -f Makefile *** There is no rule to create the target’main.c’, which is required by’main.o’.Stop.$ In this case, the make command has presumed that myapp, the first target in the makefile, is the file that you wish to produce.This is incorrect.Afterwards, it examined the other dependencies and decided that a file named main.c is required in order for the program to function properly.Because you haven’t generated this file yet, and because the makefile doesn’t specify how it should be produced, make has sent an error to the command line interface.

So, now that the source files have been created, try again.Because you aren’t concerned with the outcome, these files might be really straightforward.Because the header files are actually empty, you may create them using the following command: touch $touch a.h $touch b.h $touch c.h $touch Main is contained in the files c.h main.c, which calls the functions function two and function three.Function two and function three are defined in the remaining two files.Because the source files have include lines for the proper headers, it appears that they are dependent on the contents of the headers that are included.

Although it is a simple program, the following are the listings: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • /* 2.c */ include ″a.h″ include ″b.h″ void function two() /* 3.c */ include ″a.h″ include ″b.h″ include ″b.h″ include ″c.h″ void function three() void function three() void function three() void function three() void function three() void function three() Now, try making this again: $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c main.c gcc -c 2.c gcc -c 3.c gcc -o myapp main.o 2.o 3.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c main.c gcc -c 2.c gcc -c 3.c $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c main.c gcc -c This is a well-executed design.What It Is and How It Works: – In this case, the make command has examined the dependents portion of the makefile and decided which files must be generated and in what sequence they must be created.Despite the fact that you mentioned how to construct myapp first, make has established the right sequence in which the files should be created.

  • It has then executed the instructions you specified in the rules section in order to create the files you asked it to create.
  • The make command displays the commands as they are being executed by the computer.
  • You can now test your makefile to verify whether it appropriately handles changes to the file b.h by running the following command: $adjust b.h.
  • $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c 2.c gcc -c 3.c gcc -o myapp main.o 2.o 3.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c 2.c gcc -c 3.c gcc -o myapp main.o 2.o 3.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c 2.c gcc -c 3.c $make After reading your makefile and determining the minimal number of instructions necessary to rebuild myapp, the make command went ahead and carried out those commands in the right sequence.
  • See what happens when you remove an object file from your computer: $rm 2.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c 2.c gcc -o myapp main.o 2.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c 2.c gcc -o myapp main.o 2.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c 2.c gcc -o myapp main.o 2.o $make -f Makefile1 gcc -c Once again, make accurately identifies the steps that must be taken.
  • Comments in a Makefile include the following: – A remark in a makefile begins with and continues to the end of the line, unless otherwise specified.

Makefile macros include the following: In fact, even if this was the extent of what make and makefiles could do, they would still be extremely useful tools for managing many source file projects.They would, on the other hand, tend to be huge and rigid when dealing with projects that have a significant number of individual files.Therefore, makefiles allow you to utilize macros in order to create your programs in a more generic manner than otherwise possible.

In a makefile, you define a macro by writing MACRONAME=value, and then you access the value of MACRONAME by writing either $(MACRONAME) or $, depending on your preference.$MACRONAME may also be accepted by some versions of the make command.To make a macro’s value blank (which means that it expands to nothing), you can leave the rest of the line after the = blank.Another issue with Makefile1 is that it makes the assumption that the compiler is named gcc.

Another UNIX system that you could be working on might be utilizing cc or a89.To get your makefile to work on a new version of UNIX, or even if you wanted to use a different compiler on your present system, you would have to alter multiple lines in your makefile in order for it to be functional.Macros are a convenient means of storing all of these system-dependent components and making it simple to update them.In most cases, macros are created within the makefile itself, but they may also be specified by using make with the macro definition sent as an argument.

Make CC=c89, as an example, and you’ll see what I’m talking about.Definitions in the makefile are overridden by command-line definitions such as this.When macro definitions are used outside of makefiles, they must be supplied as a single parameter, thus either avoid using spaces or use quotation marks like this: ″CC = c89″ should be written.

  1. /A makefile that includes the macro: / Using some macros, here’s a rewritten version of the makefile, designated as Makefile2.
  2. all: myapp Which compiler (CC = gcc) do you use?
  3. What is the location of inclusion files?

INCLUDE =.Alternatives for future growth Options for release CFLAGS = -g -Wall –ansi CFLAGS = -O -Wall –ansi CFLAGS = -O -Wall –ansi $(CC) -c myapp main.o 2.o 3.o $(CC) -c myapp main.o 2.o 3.o main.o: main.c a.h $(CC) -I$(INCLUDE) $(CFLAGS) -c main.c 2.o: 2.c a.h b.h $(CC) -I$(INCLUDE) $(CFLAGS) -c main.c 2.o 3.o: 3.c b If you destroy your existing installation and build a new one using this new makefile, you will receive the result $rm *.o myapp.$make -f (Make a Finished Object) Makefile2 GCC -I.

-g -Wall -ansi -c main.c GCC-I.-g -Wall -ansi -c 2.c GCC -I.-g Wall -ansi -c 3.c GCC -o myapp main.o 2.o 3.o $ MacroDefinition $?GCC-I.-g -Wall -ansi -c main.c GCC-I.The list of prerequisites (files on which the target relies) has been updated more recently than the current target version.

the target’s name at the time of writing $

Linux dpkg Command Tutorial for Beginners (8 Examples)

  • If you are using a Debian or Debian-based system (such as Ubuntu), there is a good probability that you have run into this problem before.
  • dpkg packages are used.
  • Due to the nature of these packages (Debian), the Linux command line has built-in commands and tools for dealing with this type of package.
  • One such tool is dpkg, which we shall cover in further detail later on in this lesson.
  • It’s important to note that all of the examples in this tutorial have been tested on an Ubuntu 16.04LTS computer before proceeding.

Linux dpkg command

  • The dpkg utility is a package manager for Debian/Debian-based computers, and it may be used to install and remove packages.
  • The following is the syntax for it: dpkg ACTIONS OR dpkgfilename are both valid options.
  • And here’s what the guy page has to say about it: dpkg is a Debian package management tool that allows you to install, create, uninstall, and manage Debian packages.
  • dpkg’s aptitude package manager is the primary and more user-friendly front-end for the package manager (1).
  • The behavior of dpkg itself is fully controlled by command line arguments, which are composed of exactly one action and zero or more options, respectively.
  • The action- parameter instructs dpkg on what to perform, while the options parameter controls the behavior of the action in some way or another.
  • dpkg may also be used as a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and dpkg-query(1), which are also command-line utilities (1).

In the Activities section, you can find a list of all of the actions that are supported by the system.If such an operation is found, dpkg simply executes dpkg-deb or dpkg-query with the parameters provided; however, no particular options are presently offered to them; hence, in order to utilize any such options, the back-ends must be invoked directly by the user.The examples that follow are in the form of a Q&A format, and they should provide you with a solid general understanding of how dpkg works.

Q1. How to install a package using dpkg?

  • This may be accomplished through the use of the -i command line option.
  • dpkg -i dpkg -i dpkg -i As an illustration: dpkg -i google-chrome-stable current amd64.deb Google Chrome Stable Current AMD64 The following are the stages that must be completed throughout the installation process: 1.
  • Unzip the new package’s control files to a convenient location.
  • 2.
  • If a previous version of the same package was installed prior to the new installation, run the prerm script for the previous package to remove it before continuing.
  • 3.
  • Execute the preinst script, if one is given by the installation package.

When you are through unpacking the new files, make a backup of the old data as well so that if something goes wrong, the old files may be recovered.(5) If a previous version of the same package was installed prior to the current installation, run the postrm script from the previous package.(6) It is important to note that this script is performed after the preinst script of the new package, because new files are written at the same time as old files are deleted in this script.

  • 6.
  • Configure the package’s settings.
  • Please refer to the -configure command for further information on how to do this task.

Q2. How to remove an already installed package using dpkg?

  • This may be accomplished through the use of the -r command line option.
  • use dpkg -r instead of dpkg As an illustration: dpkg -r googler 3.3.0-1 all.deb dpkg -r googler 3.3.0-1 all.deb The following is what the man page has to say about this option: The following are the steps involved in removing a package: 1.
  • Run the prerm script.
  • 2.
  • Delete the files that were previously installed.
  • 3.
  • Execute the postrm script

Q3. How to list all installed packages in the system?

The -l command line option can be used to do this. use dpkg -l instead of dpkg For example, the following is the result produced by this command line option on my system:

Q4. How to make dpkg list contents of a package?

The -contents option can be used to do this. dpkg -contents is a command that displays the contents of a package. As an illustration:

Q5. How to just unpack a package using dpkg?

  • It’s possible that you’ll only want to unpack the package and not configure it at some point.
  • As a matter of fact, dpkg has a setting for this as well: dpkg -unpack is a command that unpacks packages.
  • In the event that you want to configure an already unpacked package later on, you may do so by specifying the -configure command line argument.
  • dpkg -configure is a configuration command.
  • The following is an excerpt from the man page describing this option: The following are the stages involved in configuring a system: To begin, unpack the conffiles while also making a backup of the previous conffiles in case something goes wrong.
  • 2.
  • Execute the postinst script, if one is given by the installation package.

Q6. How to check if a package is installed or not?

This is accomplished through the use of the -s command line option. dpkg -s dpkg -s dpkg -s As an illustration:

Q7. How to print architecture of packages dpkg installs?

Access to this information may be gained through the use of the -print-architecture command line option. Advertisement dpkg -print-architecture dpkg -print-architecture For example, the following was the result returned by the above command on my system: amd64

Q8. How to purge a package using dpkg?

  • How to delete a package from your system by using the dpkg command has already been addressed.
  • You may also purge a package, which is a procedure that eliminates everything from the package, including the configuration files.
  • This may be accomplished through the use of the -P command line option.
  • dpkg -P (deployment package) Listed below is what the man page has to say about this particular option: The fact that some configuration files are written and processed independently through the configuration scripts may lead dpkg to be unaware of their existence and behavior.
  • It is necessary for the package’s postrm script (which is called by dpkg) to take care of their removal during the purge process in this scenario, since they will not be removed by dpkg on their own.
  • Of course, this only applies to files in system directories; configuration files saved to individual users’ home directories are exempt from this restriction.
  • The purging of a package is comprised of the following procedures: 1.
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If it hasn’t previously been done so, uninstall the package.This is explained in further detail in the -remove command line argument.2.

  • Execute the postrm script.

Conclusion

The dpkg command has a variety of options to choose from. This section contains information on the choices that will assist you in getting started with the tool. The man page for the command may be found on its webpage when you have finished experimenting with them. × Subscribers are the only ones who have access to this feature. Subscriptions can be obtained here.

Linux make command – javatpoint

  • Build and manage groups of programs and files from the source code using the make command in the Linux operating system.
  • It is one of the most often used commands by developers in the Linux operating system.
  • It enables developers to install and compile a wide range of utilities directly from the command line.
  • Furthermore, it is in charge of the compilation process for large-scale projects.
  • It reduces the amount of time spent on compilation.
  • One of the primary purposes of the make command is to break down a huge program into smaller pieces and assess whether or not it needs to be recompiled.
  • Additionally, it issues the appropriate commands for them to be recompiled.

We will use C++ programs in this part since the C++ programming language is an object-oriented programming language, but you can use any programming language that is installed on your computer.It is not restricted to program descriptions; we may use it to describe a variety of other jobs as well.

How make command works?

  • Targets are sent to the make command as arguments.
  • All of these parameters are given in the ‘Makefile’ program.
  • The makefile contains the targets, as well as the actions that are linked with each of the targets.
  • In order to discover the target and its dependencies, the make command searches for and analyzes the makefile when we run it.
  • If dependencies are not given, the program will look for the dependency and build it for the user.
  • It will construct the primary target after the dependencies have been constructed.
  • For example, if we just want to make a modification to one source file and then run the make command, this will only build the object file that is linked to the source file that was changed.

It will save a significant amount of time during the project’s final compilation.

What is Makefile?

  • The make command triggers the execution of the makefile on the computer.
  • It is a particular file that contains the shell commands that we write in order to keep the project up to date.
  • The makefile includes the targets and instructions that will be executed throughout the build process.
  • The creation of more than one makefile is strictly prohibited.
  • It is advised that you create a separate directory for this purpose alone.
  • It maintains track of the most current files, so only the ones that are necessary should be updated.
  • It is necessary to recompile all of the dependent files when dealing with a big software with multiple source files.

This might result in an incredibly time-consuming procedure.A list of standards is included in the makefile.These standards are beneficial in allowing the system to comprehend what command we are attempting to run.

  • These standards are divided into two sections, each of which is denoted by a new line.
  • In this case, the first line is regarded a dependence line, while the following lines are considered actions or instructions.
  • The commands are separated by a tab at the beginning of a new line.
  • The dependencies describe the relationship between each file and the source files….

And the target is an executable file, which is produced once the make command has been executed successfully.

Options

  • The create command allows for a variety of customization options to make it more particular. The following are some of the more significant alternatives: When using the -b and -m options, you can choose to ignore the compatibility across various versions of the make command.
  • -B and -always-make: These options are used to ensure that all targets are met without fail.
  • Making changes to the directory before executing the makefile using the -C and -directory=dir options may be accomplished with these parameters.
  • -d is a debugging option that prints debugging information.
  • This option is used to output debugging information together with the standard processing information. If we don’t include the flag, the outcomes will be comparable to those of the ‘-d’ option.
  • This option, together with the -environment-overrides parameter, is used to offer the variables taken from the environment precedence to makefile.
  • -f filename, -file=file, -makefile=FILE: These options are used to utilize a file as a makefile
  • however, they are not required.
  • -i and -ignore-errors are options. In command line syntax, the ‘-i’ option is used to disregard any and all errors.
  • -I dir, -include are two options.
  • When you use the -dir=dir option, you may provide a directory in which to look for the supplied makefile. If we supply a large number of ‘-I’ options, it will search in the large number of directories in the order in which the options are supplied.
  • -j, -jobs: This option is used to indicate the number of jobs that will execute at the same time. If we offer several ‘-j’ options, the latest one will be regarded to be the one that will be executed. If we do not provide the number of jobs, it will not restrict the number of jobs that may run at the same time
  • nonetheless,
  • This option is intended to ensure that the application is kept running as long as feasible when it encounters an error.
  • If there are no other jobs in the queue and the load average is at its lowest point, the -l and -load-average options are used to suggest that no new tasks should be begun, respectively.
  • -n, -just-print, -dry-run, and -recon: These options are used to display the command that would be executed
  • -n, -just-print, -dry-run, and -recon
  • -o file, -o filename, -o filename, This option is used to ensure that the make will not remake the file even if it is older than its dependencies. -old-file=file and -assume-old=file are both valid options.
  • -O, -output-synchronization: It is used to ensure that the output of each activity is combined rather than being intermixed with the output of other tasks during the compilation process. With the ‘-j’ option, it is possible to process numerous jobs at the same time.
  • -p, -print-data-base, -print-data-base: Its purpose is to print the database that is generated as a result of reading the makefiles. When used in conjunction with the ‘-v’ option, it is also handy for printing version information. To print the database without attempting to recreate any files, use the following command on your computer: make -p -f/dev/null
  • make -p -f/dev/null
  • -q, abbreviated as ‘question’: The Question mode is activated by using the ‘-q’ option. It will not execute any commands or publish any information. A zero exit status will only be returned if the chosen destination has already been synchronized
  • otherwise, a non-zero exit status will be displayed.
  • When the -r option is used, it prevents the usage of built-in implicit rules from being utilized.
  • R, no built-in variables: This option is handy if we do not wish to specify any built-in variables in our program
  • The suffix -s, -silent, and -quiet are used to indicate silence or quiet. Silent operation is the term used to describe these possibilities. It is limited to printing the instructions while they are being executed
  • nonetheless,
  • If you use -S instead, it will cancel the impact of the ″keep continuing″ function. If you use -K instead, it will stop your computer.
  • -t, -touch: This option is used to touch files rather than run their commands.
  • -trace: This feature is used to track the location of each target in real time.
  • The -v and -version options are used to print the version of the make utility that is currently installed. Additionally, it displays a list of authors, copyright information, and a disclaimer regarding the make utility.
  • -w and -print-directory are both options. It is used to track the progress of a print message that contains a working directory before and after further processing has been performed on the message. It is beneficial for tracking down faults in the intricate structure of the recursive make command
  • nonetheless, it is not without its drawbacks.
  • -no-print-directory: In order to disable the ‘-w’ option, this option must be specified.
  • -W file, -what-if=file, -what-if=file -new-file=file, -assume-new=file, -new-file=file: These parameters make it appear as if the target file has only recently been updated
  • It is possible to use this option to warn that an undefined variable has been accessed
  • however, it is not recommended.

Let’s look at several make command examples to get a better understanding of the command. We will go through the fundamentals of making a makefile, and then we will develop some C++ applications as well as a makefile. We shall do certain operations on them in order to have a better understanding of how the make command operates.

Basic use of make command

  • Consider the most fundamental usage of the create command, which may assist you in better understanding how it operates.
  • Create a directory called ‘project’ and move the current directory to that directory.
  • Take a look at the commands listed below: Create a ″Makefile″ with the following text for the first program, which will be called: According to the code in the preceding file, the say hello target works like a function in any programming language, and the echo command will be treated as an action.
  • It is important to note that action should be written with a TAB character.
  • The target and action combined form a rule that is used in the makefile creation process.
  • Now, run the make command in the following order: Take a look at the following output: We can see from the above result that the echo operation is presenting itself on the screen.
  • In order to prevent the echo command from appearing in the output, we must start the echo command with the asterisk sign.

To disable the echo, make the following changes to the text of the makefile: Take a look at the following output: A target might be a binary file that is dependent on the activities performed on it.Consider include a couple of more targets in the makefile, such as create and list.Make the following changes to the makefile: We can see that when we run the make command, it just runs the first target, which is because it is the default target for this makefile.

  • Take a look at the following output: By inserting the following text in our makefile, we can change the default target to: It should be included to the first line of the file in the following format: The ‘generate’ goal will be treated as the default goal in the makefile above.
  • When you run the make command, you will see the following output: The DEFAULT GOAL option will only execute one target; however, you can specify multiple targets to employ all available choices.
  • If you want to provide more than one target, you need modify the first line of the makefile as shown below: It will carry out the instructions provided.
  • Take a look at the following output: There is an additional option that allows us to execute all of the targets at the same time.

If we wish to run all of the targets in the makefile, we must make the following changes to the file: The above-mentioned file will complete all of the tasks provided.After you’ve run the make command, have a look at the following output:

Advanced use of the make command

  • Let’s construct a C++ project using the files main.cpp, function1.cpp, and function2.cpp, as well as the dependent file function.h.
  • This project will have the following files: The following is the source code for the files: main.cpp: function1.cpp: function2.cpp: functions.h: main.cpp: function1.cpp: function2.cpp: functions.h Now, using the following command, build an executable file for the previously mentioned project: A hello.exe executable file will be created by combining the files main.cpp, function1.cpp, and function2.cpp into a single ‘hello’ executable file.
  • Take a look at the following output: According to the above output, if the command is correctly run, there will be no output.
  • Let’s try to accomplish the same thing with the help of the makefile.
  • To do this, create a Makefile file and paste the code from below into it.
  • The all keyword is used to indicate the target, and in the newline, the same command with a TAB is used to specify the action as in the previous line.
  • Save the file on your computer.

Take a look at the following file: To make it work, you must run the following command: The program above will generate an executable file named ‘hello’ from the files supplied above.Take a look at the following output: Let’s add some additional tasks to the Makefile to make it more complete.Create a task called ‘compile’ with the following parameters: To carry out the task compile, use the following command on your computer: The work of compiling will be carried out by the command above.

  • Take a look at the following output: Let’s add a few more tasks to our makefile to see how it works.
  • Make the following changes to the Makefile: Main.o, function1.o, and function2.o are three objects that were formed as a result of the makefile that was previously mentioned.
  • Furthermore, we have supplied the dependencies for the targets main.o, function1.o, and function2.o as main.cpp, function1.cpp, and function2.cpp, respectively, as well as the dependencies for the targets main.o, function1.o, and function2.o.
  • All of the targets will complete the tasks that have been assigned to them within it.

Also supplied is a clean target, which will destroy the executable file and all of its dependencies when it has been cleaned.Now, run the make all command to have our revised makefile put into action.Take a look at the following output: We can see from the above output that the command performed the main.o, function1.o, and function2.o files first, before moving on to the other files.It will generate the executable and object files for the files that have been provided.It will not run the clean target since we did not provide it in the hello statement..Take a look at the following files: There is nothing complicated about the make command’s operating method.

  1. It got to the hello screen after executing the all option.
  2. Following the execution of hello, it reads the target in the sequence that was given.
  3. It went over each target and its dependencies, and then executed them in the proper order.
  4. Clean is a job that may be used to remove items and executable files from a computer.
  5. To complete the clean task, use the following command: clean Take a look at the following output: The command above will erase all of the items and executable files from your computer.
See also:  How To Install Rpm Package?

Take a look at the image below of the directory: We can see from the screenshot above that we have tidied up our directory structure.

Variables in make command

  • In our makefile, we may provide the variables that we want to use.
  • The ‘=″ operator is used to define the variables in a statement.
  • Suppose we wish to create a variable A and assign the command gcc to it.
  • We might write the assignment as follows: In our makefile, we’ll use it as follows: It is provided to the terminal in the following format: Because both $(A) and $ are regarded the same by the script, we may use $(A) instead of $.

Comments in makefile

You may add comments to the makefile by using the underscore ( ). For example, to include a remark in the build section, type ″This will compile the program″ in the comment box. Comments are not taken into consideration by the compiler.

7 Linux hwclock Command Examples to Set Hardware Clock Date Time

  • The clock that is handled by the Linux kernel is not the same as the clock that is managed by the hardware.
  • Even after your computer is shut down, the hardware clock continues to operate.
  • The BIOS clock is another name for the hardware clock.
  • The BIOS provides the ability to modify the date and time of the hardware clock.
  • However, after the system is up and running, you may still check and adjust the hardware date and time by using the Linux hwclock command, which is covered in this lesson in further detail.

1. Display Hardware Clock Date and Time

  • Simply type hwclock, and the date and time of your system’s hardware clock will be shown on your screen.
  • This is the same date and time that you’ll see on the BIOS screen when you boot up your computer.
  • In addition, you may display the date and time by using the options -r or –show.
  • hwclock Sat, August 10, 2013 at 8:26 a.m.
  • PDT (0.312862 seconds).
  • hwclock -r is an abbreviation for high-speed clock.
  • 8:00:20:54 a.m.

PDT-0.109748 seconds Saturday, August 10, 2013 hwclock -display 0.640982 seconds on Saturday, August 10, 2013 at 08:21:12 a.m.PDT It is possible that the output of the date command and the output of the hwclock command are the same (actually it should be the same).The date command, on the other hand, obtains the date and time from the clock operated by the Linux kernel.

  • This is an example of a time discrepancy of around 10 minutes between them.
  • date Saturday, August 10th, 8:11:21 a.m.
  • PDT 2013

2. Copy System Time to Hardware Time

You should double-check that the date and time displayed on your hardware clock match those displayed on your system clock.As you can see, there is currently a mismatch between the time on the system clock and the time on the hardware clock.date Saturday, August 10th, 08:16:17 PDT hwclock for the year 2013 Sat, August 10, 2013 at 8:26:53 a.m.Pacific Daylight Time -0.687841 seconds were spent on this page.As a result, to make the hardware clock the same as the system clock, use the hwclock command as indicated below.

This is the most common application of the hwclock command.hwclock -w hwclock hwclock Sat, August 10th, 2013 at 8:16:27 a.m.PDT -0.625382 seconds were spent on this page.date Saturday, August 10th, 08:16:28 PDT Note from 2013: The -w and –systohc options have the same effect.Because it is simple to remember, I like to use the –systohc option.

–systohc is an abbreviation for ″system to hardware clock,″ and it is responsible for copying the time from the system to the hardware clock.hwclock -systohc hwclock -systohc

3. Set Hardware Clock Date and Time Manually

As an alternative to transferring the system date and time to the hardware clock, you can manually specify the value using the –set and –date options, as illustrated in the following example.The date will be set to August 11th, 2013 if you do the following.Please keep in mind that if you do not indicate a time, the system will default to 12:00:00 AM.hwclock -set -date hwclock -set -date hwclock -set -date 8/11/2013 hwclock Sun, Aug.11, 2013, 12:04 a.m.

Pacific Daylight Time -0.703489 seconds were spent on this page.In addition, you may set both the date and time at the same time, as demonstrated in the example below.Please keep in mind that the default time will be the local time.hwclock -set -date ″8/11/2013 23:10:45″ hwclock -set -time ″8/11/2013 23:10:45″ Sun, Aug.11, 2013, 11:10:48 p.m.

Pacific Time (PDT).-0.562862 seconds were spent on this page.You may also use the output of the date command and send it to the –set and –date options, as illustrated in the following example.

hwclock -set -date hwclock -set -date hwclock -set -date ″Saturday, August 10th, 8:31:24 PDT 2013″ hwclock Sat, August 10th, 2013 at 8:31:28 a.m.PDT -0.594118 seconds were spent on this page.

4. Copy Hardware Time to System Time

The -s option can be used to convert the hardware time to the system time when your hardware clock displays the proper date and time but your system clock does not.The following example demonstrates how to use the -s option.hwclock Date: Saturday, August 10, 2013 08:20:28 a.m.PDT-0.687872 seconds time: Saturday, August 10th, 08:34:48 PDT 2013 hwclock -s date (in hours and minutes) Saturday, August 10th, 08:20:55 PDT Note for 2013: The -s and –hctosys options have the same effect.I prefer to use –hctosys since it is short and easy to remember.

–hctosys is an abbreviation for ″hardware clock to system,″ and it is a command that transfers the time from the hardware clock to the system clock.hwclock -hctosys hwclock -hctosys If you make a mistake and screw up your system time while trying this, you may use the date command examples to repair it and restore it to the right date and time.

5. hwclock Debug Mode

By using the –debug option to the hwclock command, it displays some debug information that explains what the hwclock command is doing at the time you send the command.It is demonstrated in the following example what happens when we replicate system time to hardware time: hwclock -systohc -debug hwclock from util-linux-ng 2.17.2, which uses the /dev interface to clock the system.The most recent drift correction was performed 1375974983 seconds after 1969.The most recent calibration was completed 1375974983 seconds after 1969.The hardware clock is set to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Assuming that the hardware clock is maintained in UTC time.Waiting for the clock to tick.Got the clock to tick.The following time was obtained from the hardware clock: 2013/08/10 15:16:37 Since 1969, the time on the hw clock has been: 2013/08/10 15:16:37 = 1375974997 seconds.The amount of time that has passed since the reference time is 0.009002 seconds.

Delaying even longer in order to arrive at the new hour.Since 1969, the hardware clock has been set at 15:16:37, which is 1375974997 seconds.The ioctl(RTC SET TIME) function returned a successful result.

Because it has been less than a day since the last calibration, there is no need to alter the drift factor.It is demonstrated in the following example exactly what happens when we transfer hardware time to system time.hwclock -hctosys -debug hwclock from util-linux-ng 2.17.2, which uses the /dev interface to clock the system.The most recent drift correction was performed at 1375975224 seconds after 1969.The most recent calibration was performed at 1375975224 seconds after 1969.

  1. The hardware clock is set to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
  2. Assuming that the hardware clock is maintained in UTC time.
  3. Waiting for the clock to tick.

Got the clock to tick.1375975400 seconds have elapsed since 1969, according to the time read from the Hardware Clock on August 10, 2013 at 15:23:20.Invoking settimeofday with the following values: tv.tv sec = 1375975400, tv.tv usec = zero, tz.tz minuteswest = 420, tz.tz minuteseast = 0 Note: On alpha machines, you can use the getepoch command to view the current time, and the setepoch command to change the current time.This will result in the following error message if you attempt to run it on an Alpha machine: hwclock -setepoch -epoch=1952 hwclock -setepoch When running on an Alpha machine, the kernel only keeps an epoch value for the Hardware Clock in memory.This copy of hwclock was built for a machine other than Alpha (and thus is presumably not running on an Alpha now) (and thus is presumably not running on an Alpha now).

No action taken.

6. Adjust the Hardware Clock

  • When the system begins, it uses the time from the hardware clock to determine the current time. The /etc/adjtime file is used by the hwclock –adjust option to regulate the alteration of the time zone setting. hwclock -adjust hwclock The following three lines are found in the /etc/adjtime file. cat /etc/adjtime -3.019877 1375975224 0.000000 1375975224 UTC cat /etc/adjtime -3.019877 1375975224 0.000000 1375975224 UTC The three numbers in the first line reflect 1) the systematic drift rate in seconds per day, 2) the number of seconds since 1969 UTC of the most recent adjustment, and 3) the number of seconds since 1969 UTC of the most recent adjustment. 3) a simple 0
  • Line 2 contains the same value as the first line, which is the second value. in other words, the number of seconds since 1969 UTC of the most recent modification
  • Line 3 will state whether the time is in UTC or local.

7. hwclock Test Mode

When you make changes to the system using the hwclock command and the –test option, you can run the command without actually making any changes.The –systz option will adjust the system timezone to the appropriate time zone.However, because we included –test, the program will not really make the modification, but it will still run the operation without any problems.hwclock -systz -test hwclock -systz -test Because we are in test mode, we are not setting the system clock.When combined with the debug option, test mode is the most effective mode of operation.

For example, if you want to see what the hwclock command works without making any modifications, you may use the hwclock command.the util-linux-ng 2.17.2 command line tool hwclock with the options systemsystz, tests, and debugging The most recent drift correction was performed at 1375975224 seconds after 1969.The most recent calibration was performed at 1375975224 seconds after 1969.Assuming that the hardware clock is kept in UTC time, the following statement is true: The current system time is 1375975586, which corresponds to August 10, 2013, 15:26:26 UTC.Calling the settimeofday: 15:26:26 UTC on August 10, 2013.

the time in seconds (tv.tv sec = 1375975586), the time in seconds (tv.tv usec = 556277), the time in minutes (tz.tz minuteswest) Because we are in test mode, we are not setting the system clock.In the following example, we demonstrate exactly what the –adjust option works without actually making any changes.Use the command line arguments for hwclock to change, test, and debug the clock.

Clocking is accomplished using the /dev interface.The most recent drift correction was performed at 1375975224 seconds after 1969.The most recent calibration was performed at 1375975224 seconds after 1969.Assuming that the hardware clock is kept in UTC time, the following statement is true: Waiting for the clock to tick.Got the clock to tick.

  1. Hardware-based time measurement Since 1969, the time on the clock is: 2013/08/10 15:30:35 Hw clock time is: 2013/08/10 15:30:35 = 1375975835 seconds.
  2. The amount of time since the last modification is 611 seconds.
  3. It is necessary to input -1 seconds and refer back to the time 0.978644 seconds ago.

Because the required adjustment is less than one second, there is no need to set the clock.

RPM Command: 15 Examples to Install, Uninstall, Upgrade, Query RPM Packages

The RPM command is used for a variety of tasks on your Linux system, including installing, uninstalling, upgrading, querying, listing, and inspecting RPM packages.Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) is an abbreviation for Red Hat Package Manager.The rpm command, together with the proper arguments, may be used to manage the RPM software packages when you have root privileges.In this post, we will look about 15 real-world applications of the rpm command.Now, let’s grab a rpm of Mysql Client and go through all of our examples using it.

1. Installing a RPM package Using rpm -ivh

  • The packagename, version, release, and architecture names are all included in the RPM filename. For example, the following lines may be found in the MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm file: MySQL-client is the package name
  • 3.23.57 is the version number
  • 1 is the release number
  • i386 is the architecture number.
  • When you install an RPM package, it checks to see if your system is compatible with the software contained within the RPM package, determines where to install the files contained within the RPM package, installs them on your system, and adds that piece of software to its database of RPM packages that have been installed previously. The rpm command that follows installs the package. rpm -ivhMySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm MySQL client package. rpm -ivhMySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm 1:MySQL-client rpm command and parameters are being prepared. -i is used to install a package.
  • -v is an abbreviation for verbose.
  • Printing hash marks while the package archive is being unpacked is enabled by the -h option.

Installing packages on Debian, Solaris, and HP-UX systems is also possible through the usage of dpkg, pkgadd, and depot.

2. Query all the RPM Packages using rpm -qa

  • The rpm command may be used to query all of the packages that have been installed on your system. rpm -qa cdrecord-2.01-10.7.el5 bluez-libs-3.7-1.1 setarch-2.0-1.1. -q queries the operation
  • -a queries all of the packages that are currently installed.

To determine whether or not a certain rpm package is installed on your system, use the rpm and grep commands in conjunction, as demonstrated below. The command that follows determines whether or not the cdrecord package is installed on your system. —with-rpm-qa —with-grep ‘cdrecord’

3. Query a Particular RPM Package using rp

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